Mr. A is a 35-year-old man of Vietnamese descent who presented to his outpatient physician with a three day history of cough, fever, and myalgia. He is physically fit, with no past medical history, and currently takes no medications or supplements. He “doesn’t like doctors” and avoids receiving routine medical care for this reason, including never having received an influenza vaccination. He lives in an apartment with his female partner and three children, all younger than 10 years of age. Mr. A is employed as a security guard at a local college dormitory and is the only source of income for his family. He smokes two packs per day of cigarettes and denies any regular alcohol or illicit drug use.
Just over two weeks ago, in February, he took a vacation to visit extended family in Vietnam. Although he spent most of his time in downtown Hanoi, he did visit his cousins in the outlying country for three days prior to returning to the United States. His cousins were chicken farmers, and while staying with them he helped out with the daily chores, including tending to the flock. He noticed that many of the chickens seemed “ill,” and was told that this had been observed for several days. The cousins had not reported the sick poultry due to fear that they would be forced to cull their flocks out of concern for avian influenza, which would be financially devastating to their already meager subsistence. Due to limited space, Mr. A had been unable to stay in the main house, so he slept in a shack near where the chickens were penned. One of his cousins did have a “severe cold” at the time of his visit.
On the day of his return to the United States, Mr. A noted the acute onset of fever, myalgias, and cough. He had no further available leave from his job and did not want to risk termination, so he reported for work despite his illness. Over the next two days, Mr. A felt progressively more ill with profound fatigue and noticeable shortness of breath with exertion. During those two days, he went about his usual activities in the dormitory, which included the breakup of two large parties on the dormitory floors and supervising a crowded Family Day activity in a common room in that building. On the third day of his illness, Mr. A. found it difficult to accomplish his usual morning activities due to his worsening symptoms. He still insisted on reporting for work, and asked his girlfriend to drive him there, but she brought him to his outpatient physician instead. Mr. A believed that he picked up “a bad cold” from one of the students in the dormitory. He heard of avian influenza in the news a couple of years ago, but expressed to the physician that he is unconcerned, as clearly a pandemic has not occurred. He was initially unwilling to provide details of his trip to Vietnam to his physician, but did so only after insistent prompting from his girlfriend.
Question 1: There are several issues presented in this scenario. Name one issue and state why you believe it is a problem.
Question 2: Clearly, opportunities for primary preventative measures were missed in this case. Describe one primary preventative measure from a One Health perspective that could have been utilized to prevent this scenario. Feel free to ‘think outside of the box’ to answer this question.
Question 3: Consider all of the other people in contact with Mr. A throughout this time. In what ways did each person contribute to the development of a potential outbreak, both through specific actions and inaction? In what ways could One Health be used to address these points? If you answer this question, please just choose one person to focus on.
8 Biogeography Essay Questions 1.) What is the study of biogeography? Biogeography is that investigation of geological dissemination of verdure thinking about the distinctive ordered levels, present and past, the natural surroundings wherein they are discovered together with the included environmental connections. Today, there are two speculations in biogeography that have been created to examine more on the circulation of organic species on the planet. Both of them are Distance-rot and Island biogeography hypotheses. The separation rot hypothesis states that the connection and closeness between species in any two land areas will keep diminishing as the separation between the two increments. The second biogeographical hypothesis, island biogeography attests that those pockets of life (islands) that are firmly divided will bolster progressively natural life/species. It is as yet this second hypothesis that clarifies that these firmly divided islands are once in a while undermined by eradication whenever contrasted with the modest detached islands of the world. The Geographic Information Systems Scientists state that the over two speculations were created with the goal for us to have the option to completely comprehend the conveyance of species yet not the dissemination or even development of individuals. As it was built up, the study of biogeography was intended to respond to such a large number of inquiries that are fluctuated. It was grown with the goal that it can respond to a portion of the inquiries like for what reason are there such a large number of sorts of creatures and plants on the planet. It looks to answer why a portion of these creatures and plants are uncommon while others are normal. A few creatures and plants are broadly scattered while others are bound to a restricted spot. The study of biogeography looks to disclose the reason concerning why this is so. There are a few pieces of this world that are more extravagant as far as species contrasted with others. It's just by utilization of the investigation of biogeography that we can be in a situation to get this. There are a few noteworthy sorts of biogeography disseminations. They incorporate; Endemic (confined to explicit areas), cosmopolitan (e.g.Caenorhabdities elegans and Drosophila melanogaster), and Disjunct (isolated). The disjunct biogeographic appropriations are accepted to have been brought about by Vicariance and dispersal. In biogeography, proof that can be founded on its history can be ordered as far as Paleontology and systematics. 1.) Describe the 5 perceptions whereupon the study of biogeography is established. Give TWO models for every perception. an) Each and each specie and other higher gathering creatures are said to have a discrete and a non irregular circulation in reality. A genuine case of this is the gorilla that is just found in two African woods. b) In various geological areas of the world there is an array of creatures that are particular and they exist together. A genuine guide to clarify this is the fauna that is discovered south of the desert of Sahara together with its monkeys, impalas, pigs and this is very surprising from the Australian fauna and its duck charged platypus, wombats and kangaroos. c) The distinctions and the similitudes in these districts can't be in any capacity be depicted as far as the separation between them or even the territory of starting point. A genuine model is that the fauna of eastern Asia and Europe is to huge degree comparative in spite of the fact that they are both isolated by 11,500km of land. Additionally the fauna of New Guinea and Borneo are unique however are isolated by a little real estate parcel contrasted with the ones above which is crosswise over water and land. d) All those faunas that appear to be unique from those of today once recently happened in all other topographical districts. A model is the dinosaurs which existed in many pieces of the geographic areas in Cretaceous. e) The faunas which look like the ones discovered today and their forerunners once happened, however its occasionally at far good ways from the present range. A genuine model is the subtropical-warm temperature fauna which is found in Eocene Wyoming. This incorporates angles which are new water, turtle gatherings and lizard which are limited to southeastern pieces of the United States. 1.) Discuss this announcement: "The historical backdrop of biogeography is basically a proceeding with struggle between creation fantasy and observational science." Experimental science portrays that the appropriation of life forms in the entire world was because of ceaseless advancement of the past existing species. Science states that the present fauna and vegetation are because of advancement from past living beings which were not created as they are today. On the opposite side of the creation fantasy, individuals and particularly the Christians accept that the present populace of plants and creatures are a result of what God quite a while back. A portion of the things that are clarified in the book of scriptures are in all out clash with what science has given an itemized record on. A genuine model is the Global Flood during the hour of Noah. The Bible says that God educated Noah who by then was 600 years of age to build an ark. Noah was then expected to take two of each unclean creature and seven of each spotless creature. All nourishment and crisp water was then expected to be in the ark. Noah and his family were to stay in the ark for a half year until the rising waters died down. This creation story in the book of beginning keeps on clarifying that after the rising waters died down, Noah, his family and the creatures that were discharged at that point were the ones who later repopulated the earth. This is in complete clash with the experimental researchers who contend that today there is a lot of hereditary decent variety on the planet for us to be steady that each creature that is land based slid from the few reproducing sets and this is only nearly couple of thousands years prior. As per experimental science, a portion of the animal types we have today in the planet will advance locally. This along these lines implies that they are fixed topographically as indicated by researchers. The researchers will ask today how comes the Duckbill platypus wound up just in Australia and not anyplace else in the planet. Researchers still contend that Noah didn't take any fish or coral in the ark. During the flood therefore, all the fish would have turned out to be wiped out and every one of the corals would have been cleared away. A portion of the corals as per the researchers even seem more established than the given history of the floods. For researchers they accept that its absolutely impossible the brief species could have endure the time they were in the ark. They state that the grown-up mayflies would have kicked the bucket in only a couple of days while the hatchlings of numerous mayflies will require shallow new and running water. Other comparable creepy crawlies and a significant number of them would really confront similar issues. Its absolutely impossible the researchers would accept that the human populace could bounce back in such a brief period. Different discussions separated from the field of developmental science can likewise be found in cosmology, thermodynamics, fossil science, geography and atomic material science. 1.) Describe the fundamental commitments to biogeography of the individuals recorded beneath. Alexander von Humbolt, Liebig, MacArthur and William. Alexander Von Humbolt: He was German naturalist who is regularly alluded to as the dad of phytogeography. He was the person who felt that review on land dissemination was a significant logical request that could prompt the revelation of laws of nature that are key. He was the person who did the investigations of South and Central America together with Aime Bonpland who was a French naturalist. These two went along the Orinoco and Amazon streams as they investigated the Andes and the present day parts of Ecuador, Venezuela and Colombia. He figured out how to think about vegetation and climatic states of Urals Mountains, Siberia and Caspian Sea. He was the person who concocted the isobar and isotherm which are utilized today in depiction of climatic relationship of plant networks. He had an enthusiasm for the excellence of nature. He had a decent depiction of the physical condition together with the plant dissemination that are broadly utilized in biogeography. Liebig: He was conceived in Darmstadt, Germany. He went to Paris where was working in the research facility of Joseph Gay-Lussac. His primary intrigue was in science. He did much so as to set up science as a control. He began the main concoction periodical for researchers. He was the person who demonstrated that reviews like physiology, horticulture, and brain research are just comprehensible whenever dependent on sound substance standards. He was one of the donors in revelation of isomerism (a condition where two unique mixes may have a similar synthetic equation). He demonstrated that natural mixes can really be managed in a balanced manner. He once dismissed the present humus hypothesis. He demonstrated his differentiating thought by depicting that a few plants will leave the dirt more extravagant as far as carbon that they truly discovered it. He visited England once and was not content with the manner in which they were setting out their sewage to the ocean. He was of the assessment that they should utilize their sewage as a manure. William: He gathered vertebrates in numerous remote areas of Hispaniola between the years 1916 and 1923. He additionally did accumulations in different locales of the world like the celebrated Himalayas. Until now, most his accumulations are still in Smithsonian. He is scene biologist and a biogeographer. He has made huge commitments in the comprehension of scenes and aggravations. His exploration in these fields has made huge effect on the field of biogeography and furthermore the scholastic biogeographers. MacArthur: He thought of the MacArthur and Wilson balance model on isolated biogeography. This is a model that is utilized to give a decent establishment on the dispersion of species on islands. Its likewise helpful in clarification of the creation of separate biotas. This is a result of his model that numerous examinations have been made on the conveyances of well evolved creatures on separate natural surroundings. 5) Describe the relationshi>GET ANSWER