Hudson, Robert P. 1993. “Concepts of Disease in the West.” In The Cambridge World History of Human Diseases, edited by K. F. Kiple, 43-52. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kuriyama, Shigehisa. 1993. “Concepts of Disease in East Asia.” In The Cambridge World History of Human Diseases, edited by K. F. Kiple, 52-59. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- The main thesis in Hippocrates’ “Air, Water, Places” is that “all diseases have a natural origin.” What examples did the author provide to support his thesis? (Including counter examples) Give three examples.
- In “Epidemics I,” according to the author, what are the elements that are needed to take into consideration in order to decide the nature of a disease? Use of the 14 cases in the article to point out these elements.
- In Kuriyama’s article, what were the concepts of diseases in East Asia? How did they change over time? What facilitated the changes?
- In Hudson’s article, what were the concepts of diseases in the West? How did they change over time? What facilitated the changes?
- Do you see the similarities and differences between the concepts of disease in East Asia and in the West? What are they? What were the contextual conditions relating to the differences?
oppression work together. For example, how race and class intersect. Gillborn (2010) explores CRT and suggests that white middle class interests oppress minority groups. Gillborn explains that white supremacy is a term referring to a regime of assumptions and practices that privilege white people, which are ingrained in society and appears to be normal practice. Gillborn also introduces the term ‘interest-convergence principle’. This refers to the changes to race equality as a result of privileged white people seeing these changes as supporting their own interests. Historically, race equality is achieved through protest and so taking supportive action becomes the moral option for the interests of the privileged whites. The concept of interest-convergence is useful because it helps explain the discourses that support white supremacy. Critical pedagogy Giroux (2010) comments that critical pedagogy is an educational movement, based on the principle to help students develop an awareness of freedom, authoritarianism and to take constructive action. Simply, this concept involves the teaching and learning of students to become critical and to take action against oppressive forces. When referencing Freire, Giroux explains that pedagogy does not entail training, teaching methods, or political indoctrination but it is a political and moral practice that provides the knowledge and skills that enable students to explore how to be critical citizens while expanding and deepening their participation in a democratic society. Thus, critical pedagogy is not about attainment and grade-based outcomes, but is a tool for ‘self-determination and civic engagement’ (p. 716). When explaining the concept of critical pedagogy, the economic models of pedagogy that supports consumerism and economic profit are rejected. Critical pedagogy attempts to understand how power works through the passing on of knowledge within education and seeks to view students as informed subjects and social agents. Critical pedagogy therefore, contributes to the practice of self-criticism about the values that inform teaching and a teaching students a critical self-consciousness with the analytical skills to be self-reflective about the knowledge and values in classrooms. Critical pedagogy insists that a fundamental purpose of educators is to make sure that the future represents a socially just world. This means that critical pedagogy ensures that education has valued purpose and meaning which encourages human agency. McLaren (2012) states that critical pedagogy aims to understand the relationship between power and knowledge. It is suggested that education both dominates and liberates individuals. For example, the educational system reproduces social class and capitalism but this can be contested by students.>GET ANSWER