It is an article of faith that democracies represent the will of the populace, and therefore must be cognizant of public opinion. But this was not always the case. Before the Enlightenment (18th century) sovereigns believed that they ruled by divine will, not popular will. The signing of Magna Carta in 1215 had confirmed the principle that royalty were subject to some constraint (the opinion of other landed aristocrats). However, the next step, the idea that nations must operate according to a social contract between the governed and the government, would take another 500 years to take hold.

Attending theaters, living in urban areas, going to coffee houses, and reading newspapers all helped to give people the sense that they were part of “a public.” Wealth and education provided the public with more opportunity to congregate and more ideas to talk about. As Europe gained a middle class who participated in discussion of current affairs, governments began to listen to them more. At first this involved domestic affairs, then foreign affairs. The article below goes into more detail about the way public opinion emerged and became one of the cornerstones of modernity.

Read the information in the following article: Speier, H. (1950). Historical Development of Public Opinion,American Journal of Sociology, 55, 4. 376-388 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2772299?&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Answer the following questions: 1.How does Speier define public opinion? 2.Until the French Revolution writers feared that the public at large were unreliable due to superstition, prejudice, and excess passion. Who did earlier writers believe was likely to hold reasonable opinions? 3.What does Speier mean when he says that “Public opinion is a phenomenon of middle-class civilization”? 4.What new ways to circulate information helped the new middle class learn about current affairs?

-Answer the questions clearly, using full sentences with correct grammar and spelling. -Write one or two paragraphs on each question.

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.