- Identify the top three threats to the homeland and describe why you chose those as the primary threats?
- Considering specific terrorist tactics that have been or could be used in the homeland, which do you consider to be the most intimidating and which do you see as the most likely to be used?
As well as the distinct postmodern style, Jeunet seems to take inspiration from older film techniques. In Rémi Fournier Lanzoni’s book French Cinema: From its Beginnings to the Present (2002) it is noted that the locations and characters in Amélie are highly reminiscent of Poetic Realism films, a movement of French cinema in the 1930s that combined “naturalism and lyrical stylization” (Lanzoni 2002). The majority of the film was shot on location in the centre of Paris; however, unattractive aspects such as graffiti and rubbish bins were digitally removed in post-production. Using this technique meant that even the real modern Paris resembled the poetic-realist sets of the 30s. In my opinion, this approach makes the film feel removed from any particular timeframe, as if it is an ecosystem unaffected by the concerns of the wider world. This also means that it is strongly juxtaposed with the gritty realism of social dramas set in Paris made at a similar time, such as Mathieu Kassovitz’s “La Haine” (1995). Steinberg (2001) argues that this makes Amélie seem highly unrealistic, saying “Jeunet’s Paris is a thoroughly sanitised version of the real thing; clean, free from honking cars, tourists, foreigners and other complications. Even the beggars are happy in such an idyllic Paris” Adding to the slightly surreal version of Paris created by Jeunet is the bold colour palette, the most dominant colours being red and green, often complemented by yellow. These colours create a very warm and positive tone to the film, as they seem to emulate old footage and perhaps evoke a nostalgic response from the viewer. This again distances the film from modern day, despite the use of modern day technology. The colour red could also be recognised as a motif in the film, as it is present in almost every scene; Amélie’s clothes, the garden gnome’s hat, the flowers and tables in the cafe as well as many other objects. Jeunet also uses black and white when providing flashbacks, such as Bretodeau’s memories conjured by the treasure Amélie leaves him. This may have been done simply so that it would fit with the archive footage of the Tour de France; however I believe that it also provides a contrast with the bright bold colours in the rest of the film. Stanley Cavell proposed that in cinema, often, black and white represents reality whereas bright colour portrays fantasy (Cavell 1979). In Amélie, the narrative is focused on the main character; therefore the abnormal colours used could be seen as representative of her highly imaginative and playful outlook on life. This also suggests that the reality which the viewer is witnessing may perhaps be entirely constructed from Amélie’s imagination. Ben-Shaul (2007) explains that some films attempt to make their simulacrum so believable that it is “invisible”, so that the characters and situation are the primary focus for the viewer. Others use an obvious range of cinematic techniques to replicate a>GET ANSWER