How did Mahatma Gandhi’s and Jawaharlal Nehru’s goals for India differ, and what role did each leader’s views play in shaping modern India?
ccording to Graen and Uhl-Bien (1995), leadership research should not put its focus on the leader only. They argue that leadership consists of three domains: the leader, the follower, and their relationship. This taxonomy could be seen as the foundation of LMX theory, since the most differential aspect of the theory is the emphasis that is laid on the leader-follower dyadic relationship. LMX proposes that leaders do not treat all their followers in the same way. They split their followers into two groups: in groups and out groups. The followers that are categorized into the in groups are given more time and attention than those categorized into the out groups. Furthermore, the performance of in group members is often evaluated as higher than that of out group members, and in group members seem to be more satisfied with their LMX relationship compared to out group members (Varma & Stroh, 2001). Scholars suggest that leaders’ classification into in and out groups is mostly based on factors that are unrelated to performance, and one of these seems to be gender (Graen, Liden, & Hoel, 1982; Dienesch & Liden, 1986). In the following paragraphs, the role of gender will be discussed from different perspectives. Gender stereotypes Despite numerous awareness campaigns, feminist initiatives, and other attempts at bringing more equality onto the work floor, gender stereotypes still play a significant role in this world. Both men and women are often expected to act a certain way, and these expectations can have more influence on their evaluations than their actual performance and/or behaviour. Eagly, Makhijani, and Klonsky (1992) found that women using an autocratic leadership style were rated as less effective than men using the same style. They explain that autocratic leadership behaviours are seen as more masculine, and that male leaders are seen as more effective than women, because these behaviours seem “more fitting” for men, regardless of their actual performance. On the other hand, women were rated more favourably than men when adopting a transformational leadership style, because this style is seen as more feminine. These findings depict how gender-based expectations play a role in evaluations of leadership. Supervisors are rated higher when they comply to the expectations for their gender. This concept is also known as role congruity theory (Douglas, 2012). Goertzen and Fritz (2004) argue that the less job-related information that is availabl>GET ANSWER