1. On what grounds would Marx and the later Marxists (Unit 4) critique the political economic ideas of the Marginalist (Unit 5) and later neoliberal (Unit 8) schools? Are their views convincing? How might the Marginalists and neoliberals respond? Whose views more accurately reflect contemporary political economic conditions and why?
2. Compare and contrast the economic sociology of Weber, Schumpeter, and Galbraith (Unit 6) with the political economic ideas of Keynes and Veblen (Unit 7). In what ways are their views mutually reinforcing and where and how do they differ? Can their views be synthesized in a coherent manner and are they convincing?
3. Consider the environmental impact of the Alberta Oil Sands, British Petroleum’s 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and the 2011 Japanese tsunami and consequent nuclear meltdown. Fears of further environmental disasters and the consequences of climate change appear frequently in the popular press and remain the topics of hotly contested political and academic debates. What is the relationship between capitalism (or neoliberalism) and environmental degradation? Why do critics suggest that a “business as usual” approach will have severe socio-economic and political consequences? Describe the different effects ecological degradation may have on women, low-income earning regions, and racialized groups.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne irresistible ailment which is caused by strains of mycobacteria, for the most part Mycobacterium tuberculosis1. There are approximately 33% of the total populace are tainted with tuberculosis where nine a large number of new cases announced annually2. In spite of the fact that tuberculosis can be counteracted and treated, it keeps on causing a huge number of passings each year2. At the point when contaminated individual hacks, sniffles or spits, M. tuberculosis is moved into the air and tainted the individuals who took in the microscopic organisms that existed in beads of saliva3. Fundamentally, tuberculosis will influence the lungs, known as aspiratory tuberculosis3. It will likewise influence different parts of body, for example lymph hubs, bones, mind and kidneys3. Once a man is contaminated with tuberculosis, there are essentially three conceivable ways may happen. Right off the bat, the invulnerable framework assumes a key part and sufficiently solid to murder the bacteria3. Besides, safe framework isn't sufficiently solid to fend off the microscopic organisms however can construct a cautious boundary against the bacteria3. People who are inactively contaminated with M. tuberculosis indicate asymptomatic where these microscopic organisms lie lethargic in the lungs and ready to reactivate after years1. The illness is regularly reactivated in the individuals who are immunocompromised or for the most part debilitated. Finally, the invulnerable framework neglects to eliminate microscopic organisms making the microbes develop and spread towards different parts of body which is called dynamic tuberculosis3. In the battle of tuberculosis, World Health Organization (WHO) suggests general Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization in the nations with high TB burdens4. BCG antibody contains debilitated type of M. tuberculosis which will prompt human antibodies to battle against this kind of microbes. The adequacy of BCG immunization can be running from 0% to 84%5. This might be because of the recurrence of TB introduction and nature of immunization utilized, prompting contentions on BCG inoculation efficacies4. One of the best contentions is that BCG immunization making positive responses tuberculin skin testing and henceforth meddle with the finding of inert TB4. Presence of confirmations demonstrating the rates of viability additionally relies upon land area, age at immunization and type of TB additionally confound the circumstance. At present, TB chemotherapy is comprised of mix of a rundown of first-line drugs isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB) 6. On the off chance that the treatment flops because of bacterial medication protection, or patient unfit to endure, second-line sedates for example para-aminosalicylate (PAS), fluoroquinolones, ethionamide and cycloserine are introduced6. These are considered as second line medicates by and large either less strong with bigger measurements regimen or more dangerous with genuine side effects6. Tuberculosis is by and by treated in two stages, in particular introductory stage and ceaseless phase7. In beginning stage, the patient will be treated with simultaneous utilization of four first line drugs, with the plan to destroy or control microscopic organisms populace to imitate in quick movement and furthermore maintain a strategic distance from the development of microbes resistance7. The treatment decisions accessible for introductory treatment incorporate isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol7. Streptomycin is utilized once in a while yet can be utilized as a part of patients who tainted with microscopic organisms that are impervious to isoniazid before the treatment is commenced7. The length for starting stage is 2 months while the consistent stage takes 4 months7. Amid the four months of consistent stage, patients are treated with isoniazid and rifampicin at same doses7. The greater part of the TB treatment is regulated where medicate organization should be completely managed by social insurance callings since protracted term of treatment causing incompliance in patients7. These patients who are probably not going to be consistence will be given the medications three times each week until the point when the course is finished while patients who ready to consent to the treatment won't be supervised7. Notwithstanding the chemotherapy treatment and BCG antibody, TB stays as a critical irresistible ailment because of expanding development of medication safe TB and co-disease with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 6. Since the host resistance in HIV patients is stifled, they are more powerless to TB diseases. Besides, sedate medication associations between antiviral treatment and against TB additionally causing complexities in treating co-tainted patients6. Medication safe TB has developed chiefly in light of uncalled for treatment or incompliance in patients who quit taking their meds previously the microbes is by and large completely annihilated since the span of treatment is extensive which takes 6-9 months8, 9. The component included incorporates chromosomal transformations in qualities that in charge of medication targets encoding9. At the point when there is a successive collection of transformations, multi-tranquilize safe tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops where the M. tuberculosis strains will impervious to two of the most usually utilized medications, Isoniazid and Rifampicin9. Patients with MDR-TB are then depending on the second-line medicate classes, fluoroquinolones and the three injectable specialists to be specific amikacin, capreomycin, and kanamycin10, 11. The odds to cure would significantly be diminished for patients who tainted with broadly sedate safe tuberculosis (XDR-TB), a circumstance where the secluded strains are safe against any of fluoroquinolones and no less than one of three injectable drugs6. Keeping in mind the end goal to battle with the MDR-TB or XDR-TB and streamline the tuberculosis medicate regimen, it is pivotal to comprehend the component of activity of current utilizing first-line medications and how protection is produced against these medications. Isoniazid (INH) or isonicotinic corrosive hydrazide is found in 1952, a bactericidal specialist which dynamic against living being of the variety Mycobacterium, particularly M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and M. kansassi6, 12. In vivo, INH has appeared to be bactericidal in culture over the initial 48 hours which end up bacteriostatic after this specific time frame12. This demonstrates INH is bacteriostatic for moderate imitating bacilli however is bactericidal against quickly separating mycobacterium. The negligible tuberculostatic focus is 0.025 to 0.05ug/ml13. INH is a prodrug that should be actuated by catalaseperoxide hemoporotein, KatG before acts by repressing mycolic corrosive combination and cell divider interruption in powerless mycobacterium13, 14. This inhibitory activity is just focused to mycobacteria since other microscopic organisms don't contain mycolic corrosive in the cell wall13. INH acts by restrain enoyl acyl bearer protein (ACP) reductase, InhA, and a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, KasA that are essential in unsaturated fat combination framework for mycolic acid15. Protection from INH is accepted because of transformations in quality encoding catalaseperoxidase katG or InhA or lacking KatG 9, 14. Isoniazid is utilized in the liver, fundamentally by acetylation and dehydrazination where moderate acetylator may encounter higher fixation prompts potential poisonous quality before discharged in the pee inside 24 hours13. Rifampicin (RIF), found in 1963, is a lipophilic semisynthetic subsidiary of rifamycin anti-microbial which is delivered by the maturation of a strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei6, 9, 16. RIF has bactericidal exercises against an expansive range of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative. RIF will repress the activity of DNA-subordinate RNA polymerase of mycobacteria that is encoded by rpoB through arrangement of a steady medication protein complex9. This will stifle the start chain arrangement in RNA blend and subsequently forbid protein union in M. tuberculosis9. Advancement of protection from RIF is for the most part because of transformation in 81 base match locale of rpoB quality along these lines encourage a clear way to deal with distinguish MDR-TB since 85-90% RIF-safe strains are likewise impervious to INH9. RIF produces crest plasma grouping of 7ug/mL in 2 to 4 hours after ingestion of 600mg17. It additionally appropriated well to the greater part of the body tissues and liquids, including cerebrospinal liquid since it is lipophilic17. Following retention from the gastrointestinal tract, RIF is wiped out quickly in the bile with less sums discharged through urine17. Pyrazinamde (PZA) is found in 1954 and it produces brilliant sterility impacts against semidormant tubercle bacilli at somewhat acidic pH6, 9. The antimicrobial action of PZA is through impedance with mycolic corrosive amalgamation in M. tuberculosis by pyrazinoic corrosive, a dynamic moiety of PZA9. Transformation of PZA to pyrazinoic corrosive is intervened by pyrazinamidase protein that is encoded by pncA quality in M. tuberculosis, hence demonstrating that these bacilli are delicate to PZA9. Protection against PZA advanced when transformation happen at pncA quality that is in charge of pyrazinamidase, subsequently influencing the movement of this enzyme9. PZA is all around assimilated from gastrointestinal tract and is broadly conveyed to most tissues and liquid too17. The oral organization of 500 mg PZA produces plasma convergences of 9-12ug/ml following two hours and 7ug/ml after 8 hours17. PZA is utilized in liver though the metabolites are discharged through renal glomerular filtration17. Ethambutol (EMB) is found in 1962, goes about as bacteriostatic operator and is dynamic against experiencing cell division6, 18. EMB fundamentally focuses on hindrance of cell divider polymerization by restrains arabinosy transferase, a key chemical in charge of mycobacteria cell divider biosynthesis9, 18. Since arabinosy transferase compound is encoded by embC-embA-embB qualities, protection against EMB advanced is accepted because of transformation of these genes9. EMB is at present utilized as one of the primary line treatment for tuberculosis essentially on account of its synergistic impact with other forefront medications and its low poisonous quality property18. There is around 75-80% of an oral dosage of EMB is quickly caught up in gastrointestinal tract with retention unaffected when controlled with foods19. What's more, EMB is conveyed generally to body tissues and liquid, in>GET ANSWER