Human Relations; The Hawthorne Studies

• This video gives perspectives from the actual
people involved.
• The first experiment showed no difference no
matter the condition (bright lights, same or dim
lights). Why do you think that may be?
• How important is it for you to be heard in your
own work or organizations? How does it change
what you do when you are or are not heard?
• How have the results from the Hawthorne
Studies changed the way things are done today?
• Do you think what the company got out of the
study was different from what they were
intending to find? Why?
Hawthorne Studies
• The Hawthorne effect, social factors, and
management style were often cited as the
reason for increased productivity.
• Later studies found there may have been
other answers (worker selection, incentives,
etc.) that may have had a larger influence.
• Even so, these studies were revolutionary in
improving working conditions and starting to
view people as assets in a business.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Hierarchy of prepotency- the lower level
needs must be met before one can move on
to the higher level. (ex. Hard to feel creative
when a person is tired.)
• Employers had been providing water, breaks
for food, shelter, and meeting basic needs.
The Hawthorne Studies revealed the desire for
higher level needs to be met.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
• Douglas McGregor thought that some
managers think workers need a strong hand
and guidance. The inherent characteristics are
not overly positive (Theory X manager).
• Other managers believe workers have
initiative and will be productive without a firm
hand guiding (Theory Y manager).
• McGregor thought more managers should be
like the Theory Y managers.
Theory Z
• Globalization brings ideas from Japan
• Moves away from thinking about managing
individuals. Management is about the team.
• A number of scholars (see pg. 107) give some
guidelines for mindset:
– Strong culture
– Long term over short term
– Collective over individual
Theory Z
• Better understanding of overall work
• Collective autonomy
• Ability to make decisions through consensus
• Control own resources
• Team over individual rewards
Theory Z- Managers
• Facilitate
• Mutual monitoring
• Backup behavior
• Pool resources, adapt duties
• Team orientation
Concertive Control
• When control shifts away from managers, it
becomes part of group responsibility.
• Begin to self-govern according to social norms
and organization values.
• Pressure from peers may be just as

Sample Solution