Impact of Information about Sentencing Decisions on Public Attitudes toward the Criminal Justice System (Also available as a PDF)
On the basis of your reading, summarize the article, including the research questions, methodology, data sources, and findings of the study. In addition, respond to the following questions:
What were the key research questions being explored in this study?
How did the researchers collect the data? How did these methods impact the findings?
What were the general findings regarding the public’s perceptions of sentencing practices within the criminal justice system?
What does the article demonstrate about the limitations of survey research? What limitations do the authors acknowledge with their own study?
What does this study indicate about public perceptions of sentencing policy? What are the potential implications of these findings on the operation of the criminal justice system?
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease which is dominated by inflammation in the gut. The inflammation is the result of an immune system defects inducing the production of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines by specialized white blood cells called macrophages. (Katsanos et al, 2018). It is a life-long disease which can be treated but not cured. There are a vast number of treatments available which increase the overall quality of life, however treatments can be costly. Although immune system defects have been identified the exact cause of IBD is unknown. A combination of genetic susceptibility , environmental factors and altered gut microbiota are all linked to IBD. Genome-wide analysis has identified mutations in the NOD2 as an increase risk factor for IBD. The NOD2 plays a role in regulating the inflammation process and cell apoptosis. (Eckmann and Karin, 2005). Such advancements to identify specific environmental factors have not been made but studies exploring risk factors such as smoking, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/vaccinations, antibiotics and childhood hygiene have been carried out, none have produced definite results. (Molodecky and Kaplan, 2010 ; Ogura et al, 2001). IBD can occur at any age but the majority of cases are diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 35. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the major diseases which fall under the IBD title. Prevalence: IBD prevalence varies geographically with the number of cases and also the population growth rate significantly larger in western countries than in developing countries. (Tontini et al, 2015). Although incidence of IBD is stabilising in western countries, there has been an increase in the acceleration of incidence of IBD within developing countries which are have become industrialised over the past few decades. Although the incidence in these countries is still relatively low when compared to Europe and America the rate of increase in acceleration of incidence combined with the large population sizes of newly industrialised countries of India and China indicates that IBD is a global disease. The treatment of IBD in the western world has seen a large shift towards very effective biologic therapies in recent years. These biological therapies cost thousands of euro per patient per year which is a major limiting factor for healthcare systems and individuals in developing countries. The healthcare cost of IBD in Europe is estimated to be 4.6-5.6 billion euros a year .(Burisch et al, 2013). The incidence rates for CD in Europe is estimated to be 6.3 per 100,000 person-years and 9,8 per 100,000 person-years for UC. (Burisch and Munkholm, 2015; Van den Heuvel et al. 2017).>GET ANSWER