CASE STUDY #1
Kaiser Permanente announced this week that a laptop computer containing names, membership identification numbers, dates of birth, gender, and physician information on 38,000 Kaiser Permanente members was stolen in the Denver area in early October from a car belonging to a Kaiser Permanente employee in California. (Laptop with patient info stolen, Rocky Mountain News, November 29, 2006)
CASE STUDY #2
Richard Yaw Adjei of Bear, Delaware pleaded guilty in federal court on November 16 to aggravated identity theft and three counts of fraud for his part in a widespread criminal scheme that used information from a hospital billing service to steal the identities of more than 400 people. U.S. Attorney Colm F. Connolly also announced the indictment of accomplice Linda Danyell Williams, a claims processor at a New Castle medical billing and collection firm, alleged to have sold Adjei information about more than 400 patients for an undisclosed sum. Adjei in turn set up a tax return business and used the stolen information, including names, birth dates, addresses, Social Security numbers, hospital admission dates, doctors’ names, and diagnosis codes, to submit bogus tax returns and receive refunds totalling more than $300,000 in the names of at least 163 of the victims. (O’Sullivan, S., ID theft scam used medical billing info, Delaware News Journal, November 18, 2006)
CASE STUDY #3
“Security weaknesses have left millions of elderly, disabled and poor Americans vulnerable to unauthorized disclosure of their medical and personal records, federal investigators said Tuesday. The Government Accountability Office said it discovered 47 weaknesses in the computer system used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to send and receive bills and to communicate with health care providers. The agency oversees health care programs that benefit one in every four Americans. Its massive amount of data is transmitted through a computer network that is privately owned and operated. However, CMS did not always ensure that its contractor followed the agency’s security policies and standards, according to the GAO report. “As a result, sensitive, personally identifiable medical data traversing this network are vulnerable to unauthorized disclosure,” the federal investigators said. The network handling Medicare claims transmits extremely personal information, such as a patient’s diagnosis, the types of drugs the patient takes, plus the type of treatment facility they visited, including treatment centers for substance abuse or mental illness. (Freking, K., Auditors: health records at risk, Associated Press, October 3, 2006)
CASE STUDY #4
“Providence Health Systems agreed to reimburse the state of Oregon more than $95,000 in costs as part of a deal to settle a nine-month investigation into the largest data breach ever reported in Oregon. Medical records of 365,000 patients, stored on computer disks and digital tape, were in a car stolen from a Providence home services employee. The data was not encrypted. The theft revived efforts to enact stronger privacy protections in Oregon and spurred some patients to back a class-action lawsuit seeking damages from Providence. (Rojas-Burke, J., Providence settles data breach, The Oregonian, September 27, 2006)
CASE STUDY #5
“New York City’s public hospital system will suspend 39 employees without pay for peeking at the private medical records of Nixzmary Brown. The case of the 7-year-old girl, who died in Brooklyn in January from beatings and torture, become a tabloid and TV news sensation, and dozens of workers at the Woodfull Medical and Mental Health Center apparently couldn’t resist looking at the child’s computerized medical file. The suspensions will last from 30 to 60 days, and each of the sanctioned employees will be required to undergo training in patient privacy rules before they return to work. (Caruso, D., Prying N.Y. hospital workers suspended, Washington Post, September 25, 2006)
Answer the following questions:
1. What would you legally change to avoid/prevent this scenario from happening in the future?
2. Were there any the downstream impacts of confidentially and data integrity issues in your example?
3. What are the ethical considerations, if any in your case study?
A report portraying and examining the general wellbeing commitment of an association or activity of your decision. 'Greenwich Primary Care Trust' Presentation The commitment to general wellbeing made by an association or office can be assessed in connection to various highlights. These can be the range and extent of exercises, the importance for the neighborhood, viability of the mediations, and their establishment inside the limits of confirmation based practice. Notwithstanding, general wellbeing can likewise be estimated in connection to how well the organization tends to key parts of general wellbeing, incorporating disparities in wellbeing, what these constitute and their effect, and what is being done to address particular imbalances. Moreover, known territories of general wellbeing need can be evaluated as far as advance made up until now and measure of administrations gave to meet distinguished targets. This report investigates the general wellbeing commitment gave by Greenwich Primary Care Trust in their 'The yearly Public Health Report 2007 - 2008'. In this report, which presents itself utilizing the accompanying casings of reference, "giving the most cutting-edge and neighborhood data; thinking ahead as the populace is because of develop and change; and making proof based suggestions to help organize nearby activities on the key wellbeing challenges for the precinct" (GPCT, 2008 p 3). Dialog General wellbeing is for the most part centered around critical wellbeing variables and issues which are vital to the more extensive populace, as opposed to the individual, and effect upon society and social structures and social life, not simply on the lives of single individuals (Pomerleau and McKee, 2005; Orme et al, 2007). Pomerlau and McKee (2005) depict general wellbeing as "the science and craft of advancing wellbeing and anticipating sickness through the composed endeavors of society" ( p 7). Along these lines, it isn't amazing that the report concentrates especially on dialect encompassing the distinguishing proof of key components of general wellbeing which are liable to wellbeing advancement inside the territory, just like the particular focal point of the Trust. Pomerleau and McKee (2005) refer to the Ottawa Charter which was worried about building sound open approach; making strong conditions; reinforcing group activities; creating individual aptitudes; reorienting wellbeing administrations ; and exhibiting sense of duty regarding wellbeing advancement (p 9). These could be considered as signposts to understanding the estimation of a general wellbeing arrangement distributed by a particular office. The report is a reasonable, point by point and far reaching report plainly and adequately sketching out key zones for wellbeing which are seen as needs. These include: Improving psychological well-being (particularly discouragement); Reducing cardiovascular malady (mostly heart assaults and strokes); and decreasing growths (particularly lung, gut, prostate and bosom) (GPCT, 2008). The report gives insights on dismalness and mortality for the district which show that in connection to wellbeing and handicap over the life expectancy, these are the most huge medical issues and the ones which are, it can be accepted, most critically requiring consideration. These foci are particularly about wellbeing advancement, yet when taken a gander at with regards to what is thought about these sorts of sicknesses, the majority of alternate components of the Ottawa Charter refered to above can be believed to influence these medical problems. In accordance with wellbeing advancement standards, the report focuses on living longer, on personal satisfaction, and on prosperity issues, which are all commendable in connection to general wellbeing since they relate both to the individual, and individual wants, and to the parts of general wellbeing which will support and advantage the state (Iphofen, 2003). One of the disadvantages, in any case, of such a general way to deal with general wellbeing approach, in any case, is found in this report as much of the time as it is found in the national, administrative wellbeing advancement battles, that of over-improvement, and, apparently oblivious, minimization of specific people. For instance, the report, similar to government general wellbeing efforts, does not take enough notice of the individual components which impact wellbeing as well as are not all that simple to destroy, for example, the hereditary elements affecting wellbeing and wellbeing practices (Hall, 1951). In connection to wellbeing advancement in the key wellbeing zones distinguished, the report acknowledges the issues of way of life factors and financial components influencing wellbeing and sickness, dreariness and mortality. The report expresses that both present and noteworthy financial elements, and the decent variety of the neighborhood populace, particularly in connection to ethnicity, are viewed as huge in connection to the most critical general medical problems. There is an extensive variety of writing which joins social life, financial status and wellbeing, and which exhibits that the individuals who encounter imbalances in wellbeing are the individuals who are most distraught in social and monetary life (Bury and Gabe, 2004). It is additionally outstanding that wellbeing imbalances increment as the hole amongst favorable position and hindrance enlarges, and that specific social or social gatherings will probably encounter inconvenience and the associative disparities in wellbeing (Freund et al, 2003). GPCT (2008) recognize this, and spotlight on some critical social gatherings as most enduring impediment in the region, including Black African and Irish populaces. They contend that their arrangements have been intended to illustrate "more prominent focusing of gatherings at most serious danger of weakness results, and working with these gatherings to create approaches that will truly work, with a specific spotlight on the Black African and Irish populaces in the ward who have poor results over the real reasons for early passing and sick wellbeing" (p 7). The report additionally addresses a scope of ethnic issues and contrasts in wellbeing. In any case, it doesn't go sufficiently far in depicting and talking about arrangement reactions to these issues, and to plotting productive approaches to gain genuine ground in these territories. A lot of writing demonstrates the ethnicity based imbalances in wellbeing and the range of inconvenience identified with ethnic assorted variety (Spector, 2002). These sorts of disparities, which are regularly racially differentiated, are reflected in worldwide groups, and are no new event (Goeslin et al, 2004). However there are continuous discourses about the capacity to address such issues through general wellbeing activities, even with the incorporation of and best utilization of solid open strategy (Bury and Gabe, 2004; Pomerleau and McKee (2005). Issues which keep on reflecting the cross-sectorial issues encompassing general wellbeing incorporate vagrancy and destitution (Ryan and Sarikoudis, 2003). The report addresses the measurements around financial disparities and destitution, demonstrating that the precinct has a higher extent of individuals in bring down paid occupations, which fundamentally impacts on wellbeing. It likewise addresses some particular issues which rise up out of the social wellbeing range, including sexual wellbeing and youngsters (Bergmann and Scott, 2001). The report focuses on behavioral parts of wellbeing, and disease, crosswise over particular social gatherings, including youngsters' wellbeing. A portion of the issues displayed are like those discovered broadly and universally, including high school pregnancy and adolescent social seclusion (Bergmann and Scott, 2001; Goesling and Firebaugh, 2004). Nonetheless, there is next to no emphasis on, for instance, vagrancy as a general medical problem, one which influences a considerable lot of the key focuses which are being brought up in the report. Shah and Cook (2001) for instance, demonstrate that in one of the key files of cardiovascular ailment, that of hypertension, factors impacting this infection the most are not financial status but rather really social disconnection, and vagrancy is a standout amongst the most extreme types of social detachment that exists in our general public. The report refers to various activities which have decidedly influenced wellbeing and prosperity inside the ward, however it doesn't generally exhibit any radical or creative activities to address what are continuous, unsurprising and to some degree dreary and intermittent wellbeing and way of life issues which affect upon dreariness and mortality. There is an extraordinary requirement for various ways to deal with general wellbeing which expand after existing learning and join, maybe, more solid data. For instance, incorporating administration client contribution to the gathering, investigation and utilization of these sorts of information, and in the advancement of general wellbeing approach, ought to be a noteworthy piece of general wellbeing exercises, for example, these, and should include all the more emphatically in these sorts of reports. However models of wellbeing and social care keep on excluding the patient voice, however in this condition it might be confounded by the ethnic and social decent variety fo the precinct (Gagliardi et al, 2008). Conclusion The report talked about recognizes the particular general wellbeing worries of this London ward, and shows what the most difficult issues are, as well as how the general wellbeing information of mortality and dismalness insights converge with a portion of the financial and social measurements of the region. It distinguishes key zones for wellbeing advancement, however does not go sufficiently far in tending to singular contrasts and the hereditary elements which can confound clearing articulations about causal and influencing factors in wellbeing and ailment. It shows that general wellbeing arrangements must be centered around nearby need, and that continuous concerns are cardiovascular sickness, psychological maladjustment and malignancy. These are identified with ways of life, and in this way general wellbeing approach additionally identifies with social strategy. Notwithstanding, the connections between these two could be made much clearer. References Bergman MM, and Scott J (2001) Young teenagers' prosperity and wellbeing hazard practices: sexual orientation and financial contrasts. Diary of Adolescence. 24, 2, 183-197>GET ANSWER