On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a category-four hurricane, slammed into Dade County in South Florida. In the first few weeks after Andrew, it became evident the federal and local management of the disaster was uncoordinated, confused, and inadequate. In fact, Hurricane Andrew is often used as an example of what not to do regarding the holistic management of a natural disaster.
Read Hurricane Andrew Assessment: Review of Hurricane Evacuation Studies Utilization and and Information Dissemination.
Jackson effectively utilizes the example of Mary to create an anti-physicalist, pro-qualia argument. Mary is a neuroscientist who has studied the extended neurophysiology of vision in a black and white room for her entire life. She learns that material on a black and white television screen. She knows the exact wavelength combinations and mechanisms involved in seeing that “the sky is blue” – highly complex scientific information – and claims she knows the same for experiencing the color red. The debate arises when Mary finally leaves the black and white room and actually experiences seeing red for the first time. Will Mary learn something new when sees the color red? The obvious assumption is that Mary will learn something new about the world when she has the experience of seeing the color red. Jackson’s argument is essentially that Mary has all the physical information regarding color vision before she leaves the black and white room, but she nevertheless lacks important information about color vision. Because of this, it can be argued that not all information is physical. Mary learns “what it is like” to see red. Thus, Jackson is partially basing his argument on the “What it is Like to Be” approach, an argument also supported by Thomas Nagel. In addition to the Knowledge Argument, Jackson utilizes the Modal Argument and the “What is it Like” Argument (already discussed above) to further prove his conclusion. For the Modal Argument, Jackson relies on the principle that “no amount of physical information about another logically entails that he or she is conscious or feels anything at all” (Jackson). Physicalists and qualia believers alike can agree that there is a possibility of a world identical to ours in every physical respect but different in that the organisms that occupy this identical world have no mental capacity or life at all. As there is something about us that gives us mental capacity that they lack, physicalism must be false because there is more to us than the purely physical. Although the Modal Argument and the What it is Like Argument are substantial, the depth of Jackson’s argument against physicalism primarily relies on the Knowledge Argument. In order to prevent c>GET ANSWER