In 2013, a group of3602 men and women aged 15-3oyearswere recruited from the North
West province of South Africa and assessed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 160
participants were found to have HIV when tested at baseline. Participants who did not test
positive for HIV in 2013 were followed-up and tasted again alter 3 years of follow-up (only
those who previously had tested negative for HIV were tested again at follow-up). A further
76 cases of HIV were identified during this 3 year period (either diagnosed during the interim
or diagnosed during the study assessment).
Data from this study are presented in the following table (Table I), stratified by sea.
Table I
No. of Prevalent Prevalent Person Loss to Deaths Incident
participants cases at cases years follow- in those HIV
recruited baseline remaining of up in HIV cases at
at follow- follow- those negative follow!-
up” up HIV at up
negative baseline
Males 1,693 45 37 2.530 143 4 30
Females 1,909 l 15 107 2,632 l 17 6 46
Total 3.602 160 144 5.162 260 10 76
It is assumed that once participants contract HIV they remain HIV positive, and that over
the follow-up period some of these cases detected at baseline were lost to follow-up.
(a) What is the study design used in this study? [I mark]
(b) What was the prevalence of HIV in (i) males and (ii) females aged 15-30 in 201 3? [3
(c) What was the prevalence of 111V in (i) males and (ii) ferrules alter 3 years of follow-up?
[3 marks]
(d) What was the cumulative incidence of HIV among (i) make and (ii) females over the 3
year study period? [4 marks]
hat was the incidence rate of HIV among (i) males and (ii) females for the 3 years? [4
(1) Is cumulative incidence or incidence rate a better reflection of the incidence of HIV in
this study population? Please justify your answer. [2 marks]




Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.