Checklist for Conducting an Evidence Review for Initiating Practice Change (Intervention)
(This checklist is one suggested protocol for conducting an evidence review.
It is not the only method for conducting evidence reviews.)
The history of Spain reflects the effect of certain cultures and religions on Spanish populace, language, traditions and style of life. inside the center a long time (approximately 411 advert) Spain become occupied by using the German tribes and further the u . s . was conquered by means of the Visigoths (416 advert) (Collins, 1995). however, the goal of this essay is to examine the effect of the Islamic invasion on Spain, because the Muslims has had a big impact on the united states up to the modern. In 711-714 the Umayyad dynasty seized the Spanish vicinity close to Cordoba (Rahman, 1989); 40 years later Abd al-Rahman I created an Umayyad Emirate. but it became within the 10th century underneath the ruling of Abd al-Rahman III (912-961) that the Muslims managed to heighten Spain’s prosperity and wealth (Goodwin, 1990). Abdal-Rahman III united some regions of al-Andalus and advanced army, tax and law structures. inside the 11th century the Emirate turned into divided into several kingdoms with unique cultures and traditions. After the decay of the Umayyad dynasty, different Islamic dynasties took manipulate over Spain, inclusive of the Almoravides, the Almohades and the Nasrids (Taha, 1989). on the give up of the 15th century the Christian rulers seized the strength in Granada and placed an cease to the Muslim ruling. other Spanish locations, together with Seville and Cordoba, had been liberated from the Muslims by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in the thirteenth century. however the Islamic impact has preserved in Spain till in recent times, though Isabella made the whole lot to ruin Islam and eradicate any strains of the Muslims. The Islamic invasion undoubtedly affected many areas of lifestyles in Spain, along with culture, education, religion, economics, technology, society and circle of relatives. Al-Andalus, because the Muslims referred to as Spain, had received the relevant role among other civilizations of the historical world because the conquest of Cordoba by using the Umayyad dynasty (Chejne, 1974). especially, the Muslims created about thousand public baths and mosques for specific social corporations and implemented a few colleges for poor youngsters in Cordoba. despite the fact that a few Spanish areas antagonistic the Muslim ruling, industry and change have been significantly advanced through the Umayyads (Harvey, 1990). Spanish libraries contained more than four hundred,000 books and the streets of Cordoba have been illuminated, unlike such european capitals as Paris and London. As Hillenbrand (1999) places it, Cordobain its high had no peer in Europe for the services of civilized existence. Its homes had been bountifully supplied with hot and cold going for walks water, its streets have been lit at night time (p.one hundred seventy five). one-of-a-kind non secular companies, such as Christians, Muslims and Jews, efficaciously interacted with each other. in keeping with Ghazanfar (2004), there existed no separation between technology, know-how, and faith; nor turned into East separated from the West, nor the Muslim from the Jew or the Christian (p.2). Such spiritual tolerance may be defined by the truth that the Muslims did no longer act as oppressors, but, alternatively, they attempted to enhance the living situations of all social training in Spain. As a end result, Christians and Jews occupied the main positions throughout the Muslim ruling (Hopfe, 1998). This non violent co-lifestyles of 3 religions had persisted till the fifteenth century (Thomson, 1989), contributing to many components of lifestyles in Spain. as an instance, within the eleventh century Arabic language turned into utilised in Spanish technological know-how and literature, whilst Spaniards began to research the Muslims’ language to acquaint with Arabic writings (Shubert, 1992). a few Christians and Jews borrowed Arabic way of life and religion, steadily remodeling into Mozarabs, folks who have been Arabized (Watt, 1965). Many illiterate Spanish people discovered to read and write, calculate and navigate (Houston, 1964). as the Muslims preserved some Roman and Greek literary works, Spanish Christians served as translators for these vital manuscripts. structure, philosophy, mathematics and other sciences also prospered underneath the ruling of the Umayyad dynasty due to their perception in Allah and the laws of the Qur’an, the holy book of the Muslims that accentuated the energy of information (Fakhry, 1983). because the Muslims made attempts to apprehend God, they also attempted to discover the fact about human nature with the aid of engaging in exclusive researches and clinical investigations (Saud, 1994). for example, the Muslims substituted the Roman variety device existed in Spain for the Arabic range gadget that has been extensively utilised in algebra, arithmetic and enterprise due to the fact then. in addition, astronomy, medicine, biology and chemistry started to thrive in Spain after the Islamic invasion (Lewis, 1993). a number of the maximum famous Spanish philosophers, writers, artists and scientists of the Muslim era are Al-Kwarizmi, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Zuhr, Al-Razi and Ibn Sina (Chejne, 1974). Ibn Sina’s scientific treatise Al-Qanun had been studied in lots of eu educational establishments for about three hundred years and had been seemed as one of the nice clinical works (Vernet, 1992). one of the greatest Muslim scholars of Spain was Abu Zakariyah al-Awwam Ishibili who created a technique of grafting and gave names to extra than 5 hundred flowers (Ghazanfar, 2004). Pedro Alfonzo, a Spanish Muslim scholar who became inquisitive about astronomy, claimed that his want was to elevate all over again to existence the expertise of that technology that is in this sort of deplorable kingdom among the ones knowledgeable inside the Latin way (Hermes, 1977, p.seventy two). because of such an advanced stage of clinical development, many eu scientists arrived to Spain to obtain know-how in numerous sciences and to interpret Latin texts. In regard to economics, the Muslims created the silk industry in Al-Andalus, gradually reworking Spain into one in every of the most important international locations for silk manufacturing. The country turned into also engaged in the manufacturing of satin, cotton, pepper, furs, clocks, paper, maps and soaps. in addition Spain contributed to the nice fabrics production in Europe. Agriculture turned into poorly evolved in Spain because of a primordial irrigation gadget (White, 1970; Semple, 1971); however the Muslims substituted this vintage gadget for a new improved irrigation method that resulted within the prosperity of orchards and the growth of rice vegetation in such areas as Granada and the Valenican huerta (Dickie, 1968). The Muslims utilised the technique of Syrianization to enhance agriculture of Spanish towns, specially Valencia and Seville (Burns, 1973). the brand new device allowed Spaniards to intensify crops with the assist of artificial water deliver (Smith, 1966, p.442). up to the cutting-edge this irrigation device has been controlled by means of an old Muslim tribunal (Tribunal of the Waters); these days this Tribunal is held as soon as per week and is aimed toward fixing disputable agricultural troubles. due to these improvements, Spanish human beings commenced to domesticate numerous plant life and bushes, consisting of oranges, lemons, artichokes, apricots, olive and applied a complicated machine of nature protection (Imamuddin, 1965, p.84). earlier than the Islamic invasion, Spanish grew wintry weather crops, however the Muslims managed to enforce Indian vegetation that had been grown in a frost-free season. As a end result, many Arabic phrases have been introduced in Spanish language to mirror exclusive components of the irrigation device; for example, alberca-al-birka approach a pool and acequia-al-saqiya manner an irrigation ditch. nowadays a few vegetation bear the Arabic names, such asbellota-balluta for acorn, alazor-al-asfur for safflower and al-fasfasa foralfa>GET ANSWER