Function and aesthetics are often governed by mathematics. Beautiful examples of this can be found in nature, from the growth pattern of plants to the feature placement on the human face. Read a low-tech blog post (Links to an external site.) about how Aston Martin uses the golden ratio in car design. The Golden Ratio, phi, is defined by:
Equation 1. Exact Phi
One way that phi can be approximated is by taking the limit as n goes to infinity of a term in the Fibonacci sequence divided by it’s proceeding term:
Equation 2. Estimated Phi
Be sure to read the module page on Printing to Log Files because it contains code on how to compute terms of the Fibonacci sequence. Similarly, e can be approximated by:
Equation 3. Estimated E
We will use our new input and output tools to create an iterative estimation program for both e and phi and compare our estimates to the true values.
ollowing the lead of Woodrow Wilson, the Espionage Act of June 1917, issued to prevent disloyalty in time of war, disproportionately targeted foreigners, socialists and labor unions. To Wilson and many Americans, there was a very thin line between enemy alien agents and radical labor organizations. The most dangerous group, they believed, was the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), an inclusive labor union formed in 1905 that attracted low wage immigrant workers and supported socialism. In 1916, the leaders of the IWW, like much of the country, condemned war. They further called for “class solidarity among the workers of the entire world” and promoted a general strike in all industries to prevent capitalists from battling each other. A year later, the union became the first victim of what Attorney General Thomas Gregory called the “hysteria” that developed around the Espionage Act. In July, 1917, a month after the Act was passed, the IWW sponsored a labor strike in Bisbee, Arizona. Soon after the strike was called, rumors circulated that it had been infiltrated by pro-Germans prompting the Los Angeles Times to warn that “on our soil is an enemy…preaching revolution and invoking anarchy…the IWW… is filled with foreigners, officered by convicts, and is attempting vaguely to guise its sabotage behind the specious title of Industrial Workers of the World.” No German spies were found but more than 1,000 laborers were deported to Mexico. Another attack on the union took place on September 5, 1917 when national and local law enforcement agents raided every IWW office in the United States as well as the homes of leading members. The documents they found were used to prosecute more than 100 IWW leaders on Espionage Act charges of “conspiring to hinder the draft, encourage desertion, and intimidate others in connection with labor disputes.” The arrests were justified by claiming that the IWW leader intended to “keep the soldiers so busy … that they will have no time to fight Germany.” The raids on the IWW heightened fears that there were enemies living among patriotic Americans prompting the Congress to pass the more restrictive Sedition Act of 1918 and tightening control on the media.>GET ANSWER