Close reading: a thorough, careful, and sustained analysis of a brief passage of writing
Key Steps of Close Reading
- Read slowly and carefully
- As you read, mark up the page. (You’re looking for things like: tropes, images, metaphors, key words, genre, hints about narrative voice and audience, and other things that stand out to you.)
- Look at your marks and note any patterns (themes, groupings, absences, opposites, increases/decreases in frequency or urgency, etc)
- Formulate how/why questions based on those patterns
- Take the how/why questions and go back to the text, reading closely a second time to look for further information
- Formulate a main claim
- Support the main claim with details, organized in a logical order (and indicated by topic sentences)
- Explain why you have chosen to discuss these specific elements (intro paragraph)
- Write the full draft of your close reading
- Revise, edit, and proofread it
For a first draft of a close reading, you should go through steps 1-4.
If you think you are “on” to something, then you can revise and expand your reading, formalizing it by going through all 10 steps. You have to read slowly and carefully, and you have to translate your observations into written text, organizing them behind a unifying claim (thesis) and into discrete portions (paragraphs with topic sentences).
ey will circumvent the organisation if it refuses to do so (Clements, 2008). A prime example is the actions of the United States under the Bush administration (2000-2008). During this period, the United States used the UN to dry and advance United States exceptionalism and unilateralism (Clements, 2008). This occurred during United States-led conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Schaaf (2013) explains that such implicit bias towards the interests of certain countries can influence the effectiveness of military and development organisations. For example, the UN and several non-government organisations (NGOs) were involved in the conflict in Iraq from 2003 to 2010 and were identified with the occupying power, not as neutral humanitarian actors (Stoddard and Harmer, 2006). Thus, it could be suggested that Operation Iraqi Freedom saw pre-emptive, unilateral action on the behalf of the UN and some of its most powerful key members (the UK and the United States), that threatened the entire legitimacy of the UN and its Security Council (Glen, 2009). Hence, it appears that the UN is an example of an international order that exists to preserve the power and authority of the five key powers, rather than to represent the interests of more fragile nations and peoples. The Permanent 5 and other large states view the UN as a container for the expression of national interests (Clements, 2008). As such, this could be interpreted as a demonstration of the political theory of realism in action. Realist theory is underlined by three core ideas. These are survival, statism and self-help (Baylis et al., 2008). Survival is an important aspect of realism as realists believe that the global system is anarchic by nature and has no central authority; hence, the global stage is always characterised by battles for power by self-interested nation-states (Snyder, 2004). Nation-states play an important role in realist theory as the nation-state is viewed as the dominant actor in international politics (Snyder, 2004). Finally, self-help is another important aspect of realism as realists believe that nation-states can only rely on their own resources for survival. By acting in their own self-interest, nation-states can more effectively acquire power and are acting in the most rational and logical manner they possibly can (Morganthau, 2005). The reason for this is that from a classical realist perspective, nation-states are primarily motivated by ‘relative gains’ (Donnelly, 2000: 58). These>GET ANSWER