Perform Lab and write report/ observations
Conduct the experiment in the Final Lab Manual. Fill out the questions in the lab manual to guide your experiment and organize your results and conclusions. Take pictures of your experiment prior to beginning once you have all of your equipment set up, in the middle of the experiment and at the end of the experiment. For each lab, create a “Student Information Card” to be pictured in each photo with:
• the name of the lab
• the date you are performing the lab
• your full name and signature
This card should be the approximate size of half of an 8×10 piece of paper, so that all information is clearly visible in your photo. This card should be displayed in each of the lab specific photos. If you do not include this card, you will receive 0 points on the lab report.
Record your detailed observations and results throughout the experiment. Once you have conducted the experiment and completed the Lab Report, write a 3 page lab report in essay format (MLA) summarizing the experiment, results and conclusions. See below for the grading rubric.
Detailed Instructions and Grading Rubric Midterm & Final Lab Reports
• Minimum length of 3 pages of text, double-spaced, not including pictures and figures. 20 points
• Lab Report must include the following sections (separated by bold headers corresponding to those below) 5 points
• Introduction: 2-3 paragraphs introducing the biological concepts covered in the lab, including references to sources. Last paragraph of introduction should contain 2-3 sentences introducing the lab design. 50 points.
• Methods: 2-3 paragraphs detailing the methods that you used to perform the lab. Do not cut and copy these from the lab manual. Write these in sentence form and do not use numbers or bullet pointed lists. Include every detail you performed so that the reader would be able to perform the lab exactly as you did if they were trying to repeat it. Include pictures/diagrams where necessary. 50 points.
• Results: 2-3 paragraphs summarizing the results of the experiment. Use the Lab manual as a guide for the type of information to include here. Create figures (bar plots, scatterplots, etc) in Microsoft Excel from the completed tables from the Lab manual. Do not insert the tables from the Lab manual into the document, as I expect further synthesis of these results. Insert pictures of the completed experiment. 50 points.
• Discussion & Conclusion: 2-3 paragraphs discussing the results of the experiment, what the results mean, and how they relate to the biological concept under study. Reference outside sources where appropriate. Discuss 2-3 errors while avoiding the term human error. (Random Error and Systematic Error) Include a paragraph on your experience and impressions of the lab and what you learned. 50 points.
• References: Include MLA properly formatted references and in-text citations. A minimum of three sources are required. (See Purdue OWL). 25 points.
Final Lab Report
Conduct the experiment by following the detailed instructions below. Fill out the tables and
answers the questions below to guide your experiment and organize your results and conclusions.
Take pictures of your experiment prior to beginning once you have all of your equipment set up,
in the middle of the experiment and at the end of the experiment. Record your detailed
observations and results throughout the experiment. Once you have conducted the experiment
and completed the questions/tables, write a 3 page lab report in essay format (MLA)
summarizing the experiment, results and conclusions. See grading rubric.
Radish or other quick sprouting seeds
Zip lock bags or saran wrap
Red food coloring
Blue food coloring
The abiotic (non-biological) features of an ecosystem (e.g., climate, soil quality, water
availability) are important to understanding the biological community that comprises the
biotic component of an ecosystem. Water availability is particularly important to all life.
Freshwater makes up about one percent of the world’s water (Figure 6.1).
Fresh water scarcity limits the range of many terrestrial species of plants and animals. Plants,
like animals, have different tolerances to salt in their environment. All soils have some water-
soluble salts, and essential plant nutrients are absorbed
in this form. High salinity in the soil (the salt content)
makes it more difficult for plants to extract water from
the soil. Fresh water enters an ecosystem in the form
of precipitation, a river or lake, or an underground
aquifer (Figure 6.2). With human population growth,
practices and urban water demand, water levels in
many of the world’s aquifers are dropping. If fresh
water is pumped out of an aquifer at a rate exceeding
its natural recharge rate (from precipitation and
underground water channels) salt water and other
pollutants may intrude into the traditional aquifer basin. Salt water encroachment is a growing
problem in the aquifers of coastal communities.
Salty soil is also a problem that can arise in agriculture. As irrigation water is absorbed by plants
and evaporated by the sun, salts are left behind. Over time, salt may accumulate such that the soil
becomes too salty for many plants to grow. It is believed that the ancient population of Sumeria
first thrived with its practice of irrigation, but over many generations began to suffer reduced
crop yields due to the increasing salinity of the soil.
Experiment 1: Water Transport & Salinity
- Obtain four cups (two of which could have been used in Lab 5). As in Lab 5, fill each cup with
400 ml of tap water. Use red dye to darkly stain two cups, and use blue dye to darkly stain the
other two cups. Be sure that each red cup gets the same amount of dye and that each blue cup
gets the same amount of dye. Record the drops in each. Add a spoonful of salt into each cup.
- Label one red dye cup and one blue dye cup with an S (high salt). Add 4 spoonfuls of salt to
each of these cups. Stir the solutions thoroughly.
- Obtain two similar stalks of celery, each with some leaves at the top. Cut a 1-cm piece (about
one-half inch) off the bottom of each stalk. Keep the relative lengths of the two stalks as similar
- Carefully, split the stalks up the middle about half-way. The stalks should each now have two
“legs.” Be sure that the legs of each stock are similar sized (i.e., the left leg and right leg are the
nearly the same length and width).
- Place the red S cup and the blue S cup together. Gently place one “leg” of one stalk into the
red S cup, and the other “leg” of the stock into the blue S cup. The celery should now be
“straddling” the two S cups (Figure 5.2.B). Place the red non-S cup and blue non-S cup together
and situate the legs of the other celery stalk into each cup (i.e., the celery “straddles” these two
- Record the time at which you place each celery into the pairs of cups as “Start time.”
- Let the celery sit in the cups for 6 hours, or until you can see color in the leaves of one of the
stalks. In Step 6 above, record the time when you remove the stalks as “Stop time.”
- Examine the top of the celery stalks. Are there differences between the celery in the high salt
(S) and low salt (non-S) water conditions? Record your observations
- Remove the celery from the cups (be sure to keep it clear which came from the high
saltsolution (S) and which came from the low salt (non-S) condition). Lay each stalk out
flat.Starting at the top, move down the stalk, making cross-sectional cuts. Stop when you first
seeevidence of dye. Measure how far up each stalk the red and blue dyes climbed. In Table 6.1,
record the distance (cm) traveled by the red dye in high salt conditions (S), the blue dye in high
salt conditions (S), the red dye in low salt conditions (non-S) and theblue dye in low salt
- Tear apart the celery stalk. Notice the feel of the vascular tissue, and how the food coloring
lies within it.
Experiment 2: Seed Germination & Environmental Conditions
In this experiment, you will investigate germination of radish seeds in environments with
different salt contents. You will prepare six germinating environments and monitor them over
four days. Each germinating environment will be a plastic-encased, water-soaked paper towel.
- To prepare solutions of different salinity, collect 6 clean cups and label them: “1/2”, “1/4”,
“1/8”, “1/16”, “1/32”, and “0”.
- Use a measuring spoon to add salt to 50 ml of water in a measuring cup (about ¼ cup). Add
1.5 tablespoons of table salt (sodium chloride). Stir the water while adding the salt. The
solubility of sodium chloride is ~36 grams per 100 mL of fresh water at 25 C. After vigorous
stirring the solution you should still be able to see some remaining some salt crystals at the
bottom of your solution. This indicates that you have reached the saturation point of salt in your
- Pour off 40 ml of salt water into the cup labeled ‘1/2.” Do not pour the un-dissolved salt. The
“1/2” cup will then contain your saturated salt water solution.
- Clean your measuring cup, and fill each of the remaining cups with 40 ml of plain water.
- Add 40 ml of plain water to your salt solution in the “1/2” cup. You will then have 80 ml of a
50% saturated saline solution in the “1/2” cup.
- Using your measuring cup as an intermediate, transfer 40 ml the 50% saturated solution (“1/2”
cup) to the cup labeled “1/4”. The “1/4” cup will then hold 80 ml of a 25% saturated saline
- Using your clean measuring cup as an intermediate, transfer 40 ml the 25% saturated solution
(“1/4” cup) to the cup labeled “1/8”. The “1/8” cup will then hold 80 ml of a 12.5% saturated
- Using your clean measuring cup as an intermediate, transfer 40 ml the 12.5% saturated
solution (“1/8” cup) to the cup labeled “1/16”. The “1/16” cup will then hold 80 ml of a 6.3%
saturated saline solution.
- Using your clean measuring cup as an intermediate, transfer 40 ml the 6.3% saturated solution
(“1/16” cup) to the cup labeled “1/32”. The “1/32” cup will then hold 80 ml of a 3.1% saturated
saline solution. You have now prepared a pure water solution in cup “0” and a 3.1%, 6.3%,
12.5%, 25%, and a 50% saturated saline solution in cups “1/32”,”1/16”, “1/8”,”1/4”, and “1/2”
- Alternative experiment. You have six solutions ranging in concentration from 0% to a 50%
saturated saline solution. You can run this experiment using each solution as the basis for a
germinating environment and following the instructions as they stand. However, if you would
like to discard one or two of the salt water solutions and use two solutions of your own design in
their place, this is OK. Examples include using water with additives such as sugar, alcohol, soda,
or bleach, or even running two at the same salt concentration to get a sense of the uncertainty.
You can also use the above protocol to test the effects of even smaller salt concentrations. If you
choose to run some alternatives, you still need to run pure water and at least three of the saline
solutions, thus all of the rest of the salt concentration experiment still applies. If you do choose to
run some alternatives, simply follow the directions below with the relevant change in mind. In
the lab report, you will need to describe your alternative experiment(s) and their outcome(s)
separately. Have fun!
- Prepare for seed germination. Take three paper towels and cut them in half. Fold each half
towel in half. These towels will be the seeds’ germinating environment.
- Place a folded towel in each of the cups containing your salt solutions and possible
alternatives. Make sure that each towel gets soaked with the solution and that you do not lose
track of which one is which condition. Label one corner of each towel with the corresponding
solution (e.g., “1/2”, “1/4”, etc.).
- Count out six piles of 15 or more radish seeds each. Make sure that each pile has the same
number of seeds. If there are visible quality differences between seeds make sure that each pile
has similar quality as well (e.g., discard cracked, broken, or discolored seeds).
- Remove the soaked towels from the cups and lay the seeds from each pile out in each one of
the towels (Figure 6.3). Be careful not to mix up which towel came from which cup. Record the
initial date (Day 0) in which you first put the seeds in the towels in Table 6.2 in Lab Report 6.
Spread the seeds over only one half of the towel so that you can fold the other half over the
seeds. You may even want to add another fold.
- Fold the towel up around the seeds in order to keep them wet, but you will also want to be
able to unfold the towel to observe the germination process over the next four days. Wrap each
wet towel with its seeds in saran wrap or in a sealed sandwich bag. This will insure that the water
in the towel does not evaporate away. Make sure that each towel and seed set is labeled to match
the corresponding solution(e.g., “1/2”, “1/4”, etc.), perhaps by marking the plastic bag or wrap,
or by placing a labeled piece of paper in the bag/wrap.
- Find a safe location where your seed sets can stay for the next four days. Make sure that each
set is in identical conditions. Monitor seed appearance and growth every day for the next four
days. Unfold the wet towels carefully to avoid ripping the wet towel or fragile sprouts. Be sure to
record the number of sprouts, changes over time, and differences that you notice between seed
sets in Table 6.2 in Lab Report 6.
Konstantin Stanislavski, (conceived Konstantin Alekseyev, and some of the time spelt Constantin Stanislavsky), was 14 years of age when he initially set foot on the phase that his folks possessed in 1877. His adoration for the performance center bloomed for a mind-blowing duration, driving him to end up one of the world's most persuasive theater professionals to date. His work in the field of dramatic practice methods made him an easily recognized name for show understudies around the world. He distributed numerous books and aides intended to give show understudies an understanding into "authenticity", including 'An Actor Prepares' and 'Building a Character', which blueprint different popular practice strategies intended to enable an entertainer to completely identify with their character, to the point that they are claiming to be them, however living their lives. He contended that the on-screen character should "Love the craftsmanship in yourself, not yourself in the workmanship" , searching for the feeling inside themselves instead of the words in the content. Stanislavski's spearheading vision for the auditorium was that characters ought to be credible, and the storyline should concentrate on the feeling depicted, connecting with the group of spectators through methods, for example, compassion. He contended that anything set forward on the stage ought to be a precise record of reality, an idea which got from his abhorrence for the sensational theater he had grown up with. Be that as it may, Stanislavski is one of a few well known theater experts, all with a totally unique idea of what theater ought to be. For instance, Bertolt Brecht set forward the hypothesis of 'Epic Theater', which instructed that the group of spectators ought to consistently be estranged from the activity in front of an audience, unfit to relate to the characters, yet rather being left with inquiries to pose to themselves. He accepted the group of spectators couldn't in any way, shape or form feel for the characters in front of an audience on the grounds that there were such a large number of individual contrasts in the public eye itself-"society can't share a typical correspondence framework inasmuch as it is part into warring groups" (Brecht, 1949, section 55). Brecht needed the group of spectators to leave the venue discussing their ethics. Another lofty dramatic expert is Antonin Artaud, who contended that any presentation ought to profoundly influence the crowd. So as to accomplish this, he utilized non-naturalistic lighting and sound to make an aggravating air. Artaud wished his crowd to leave the auditorium encapsulating changed. With three such various points from every specialist, it is hard to make certain whether any of them had an especially admirable sentiment. Every one of the three speculations are broadly regarded, yet every complexity and difficulties the following, implying that, so as to trust in one of them, you should preclude the others as legitimate. These clashing hypotheses turned into the start of the principle thoughts behind this task. I needed to realize whether there was a strong method to demonstrate whether Stanislavski's hypotheses are full of feeling to the group of spectators as far as making a more practical presentation than one with typical practice, or for sure practice techniques concocted by different experts. To have the option to decide this, I expected to direct further investigation into Stanislavski's framework. The framework itself is profound and unpredictably nitty gritty, with various angles regarding what Stanislavski considered a 'decent execution'. Be that as it may, a few are clearly more huge to him than others. As indicated by the online Encyclopedia Britannia , the fundamental highlights are 'Given Circumstances and the Magic If', and 'Passionate Memory'. 'Units and Objectives' is additionally a noteworthy component of the framework, so these are the three viewpoints I refined my examination to so as to build up a superior comprehension of Stanislavski's technique for acting. 'Given Circumstances and the Magic If' Stanislavski said that "what is imperative to me isn't simply reality, yet reality inside myself" , implying that anything set forward on the stage must be valid. He perceived this thought was a potential issue since all acting is, basically, an untruth. He subsequently said that all entertainers ought to be as consistent with themselves as they can while having an influence. The thought behind Given Circumstances is that on-screen characters acknowledge that, with the content of a play, they are given a situation which they should hold fast to so as to make the storyline. Given conditions can identify with either the character or the play itself, and they incorporate things like character's age, sex, social class, and the play's timeframe, setting and social/authentic/political ramifications. All together for an entertainer to give a genuine exhibition, Stanislavski put a monstrous accentuation on the significance of examination into the given timeframe or circumstance with the goal that the entertainer would really comprehend their job. He instructed that the exploration should be finished until an on-screen character can completely substance out his character, and answer any inquiries given to them about their character's parentage, youth, and life occasions, regardless of whether these aren't referenced in the content. When the Given Circumstances had been acknowledged, Stanislavski recommended that the on-screen characters used a connected part of his hypothesis, called the 'Enchantment If', so as to manage them. The 'Enchantment If' is where the on-screen character asks himself "given the conditions effectively chosen by the dramatist, on the off chance that I was this character, and I was in this circumstance, how might I respond?". In his book 'An Actor Prepares', Stanislavski discussed the educator utilizing the case of professing to be a tree. "State to yourself: "I am I; however on the off chance that I were an old oak tree, set in certain encompassing conditions, what might I do?" and choose where you are… in whatever spot influences you most" (Stanislavski, 1937, p65). Stanislavski asked that his understudies enable their minds to prosper through systems, for example, Given Circumstances and the Magic If, to develop further, progressively reasonable exhibitions. 'Enthusiastic Memory' Another system which was conceived from Stanislavski's conviction that acting must be genuine is Emotional Memory, some of the time known as Affective Memory. Shelley Winters, a case of a well known on-screen character with extreme faith in the Stanislavski System, said that as an entertainer you should be happy to "act with your scars" , or in layman's terms, be eager to permit your inward feelings and past encounters to appear on the other side. This is basically the fundamental terms of Emotional Memory, which requires the on-screen character to draw on past close to home encounters which brought about a comparative feeling to which their character is encountering. When the entertainer has distinguished the experience, they are urged to permit the feeling they felt indeed assume control over their brain and body, restoring the unique situation and attitude until the feeling is genuine. The feeling must at that point consistently be connected to the content or character, as Stanislavski felt this would make the exhibition progressively credible on the grounds that the feeling is consistent with the on-screen character. Subside Oyston, establishing Dean of Drama at the Victorian College of the Arts and customary educator/chief at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, made a practice technique explicitly intended to improve the emotions from recollections. He distributed this, and different strategies alluding to Stanislavskian methods, in a DVD narrative called "How to utilize the Stanislavski System" (2004). The Emotional Memory segment can be seen on YouTube , and instructs the understudy to recollect when they by and by felt a feeling which shadows or parallels that required from the content. They are urged to discuss the circumstance they are recollecting for all to hear, until the feeling assumes control over their psyches and bodies. At that point, they should flawlessly move their discourse from their very own memories to the content given to them, moving the feelings simultaneously. 'Units and Objectives' One of the most noticeable parts of Stanislavski's technique is his thought that any character in any play has a 'Super-Objective' all through the activity; a point or main impetus which continues all through the play. Stanislavski instructed that this Super-Objective must remain in every entertainer's brain all through their practice and execution, and that despite the fact that it may not be expressed, or even self-evident, they should willingly volunteer to explore and find it. When this has been practiced, he felt that the content could then be separated into littler Objectives, which would change a few times all through the piece as the plot extended. Every Objective must be an action word, so as to be a 'functioning target'. He requested that on-screen characters split their content into Units and Objectives. Most bits of show are part by the writer into a progression of scenes and acts, enabling the activity to move in time or setting, yet Stanislavski found that a goal could go through and cover into various scenes, or change in all respects abruptly in the center of a demonstration. He accordingly presented the idea of Units, which are another method for splitting a play-every unit should contain one target. The chart above layouts the many-sided detail of the parts of Units, Objectives, and Super-Objectives. The Throughline of Action is the point in a character's brain all through the aggregate of the play, which comes full circle in the Super-Objective. In the interim, each character has a few unique Objectives which are part between the Units the on-screen characters formulated for the content. These Objectives can take the character to a wide range of spots, however their Super-Objective will consistently continue as before. Besides, the Objectives themselves are similarly as nitty gritty. Stanislavski said that every Objective could be separated into the Aim, the Obstacle and the Action. The point is the thing that the character is attempting to accomplish in that specific unit. The impediment is something which prevents or confines them from satisfying their point, and the activity is the means the character takes so as to a>GET ANSWER