Retrieve two peer-reviewed articles pertaining to organizational leadership and leadership vulnerability.
- Critique each article, and identify how the concept of vulnerability can be a positive leadership characteristic.
- Give examples of how vulnerable leaders may foster a productive, safe environment which empowers the workforce.
The biggest use currently for TTF is in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Glioblastoma multiforme, also abbreviated GBM are automatically considered Grade IV tumors as a majority of the tumor cells are dividing regularly. The tumor is made up of abnormal astrocytic cells and invades regions of the brain, sometimes even spreading to the opposite side of the brain through the corpus collosum, connective fibers of the brain. Many times, these tumors appear de novo, meaning that there was never a precuring growth. Symptoms of the tumor usually appear abruptly due to excess fluid in the brain causing further swelling. Neurological symptoms may occur as well depending on where the tumor is located in the brain. The treatment of GBM is very tricky as some cells respond well and others not at all. On top of that, when looking at the surgical removal of a GBM, things get even more complicated as the tumor has tentacle like diffusions that invade the brain, making it very difficult to remove (American Brain Tumor Association). When looking at the treatment of GBM, it is usually resistant to standard chemotherapy, so patients usually have a biopsy or extensive surgery done to try and remove parts or all of the tumor. Almost all GMB recur and so the next treatment steps depend on many different factors like the condition of the patient and “the extent and location of the recurrence” (Emerging Technology Evidence Report 2015). TTF works well in this specific type of cancer as the cancerous cells are the ones that are dividing most in the central nervous system, so they are the cells that are mostly targeted. The way the treatment is given is through “small transducers that are attached to their head with adhesive bandages” (Hopkins Medicine). The whole contraption consists of wires, connected to transducers, connected to batteries and in total is around the size of a book (Hopkins Medicine). This allows this treatment to be portable and continuous, only unplugging the device for short amounts of time when bathing. The only downside to this treatment is that in order to use this treatment, one must shave their hair. TTF therapy is often used in combination with the chemotherapeutic drug temozolomide, sometimes abbreviated TMZ. The least common side effects, seen in 10% or less of patients, of the treatment when in combination with temozolomide are “low blood platelet count, nausea, constipation, vomiting, fatigue, scalp irritation from device use, headache, convulsions, and depression”. The most common side effects of just using TTF are “scalp irritation from device use and headache”. There are also adverse reactions seen in relation to using the device such as “scalp irritation from device use, headache, malaise, muscle twitching, fall and skin ulcer” (Novocure). The cost of TTF therapy, specifically Optune, runs at $21,000 a month. On average, patients use TTF therapy for 4.1 months and so the cost falls around $86,000. According to the Emerging Technology Evidence Report, currently, Medicare does not have a determination on the national coverage of TTF therapy, so it is up to the discretion of local Medicare carriers. Also, according to the report, out of eleven private insurance companies in the United States, on>GET ANSWER