1. If the price level and the level of real GDP both increase, would it be more likely that the aggregate supply curve or the aggregate demand curve shifted? Would this shift represent an increase or a decrease (Note the increase in PRICE LEVEL, not an outside force)?
2. If the price of Pepsi increases, U.S. consumers can easily substitute to another brand of cola in the same stores. If the price level of all U.S. goods increases, to what type of goods would U.S. consumers have to substitute in order to avoid the higher prices? What would this do to the quantity demanded of all U.S. goods?
3. What would happen to the aggregate supply curve if worker productivity increased as a result of increased training and education?
4. Which of the following could lead to inflation?
a. An increase in aggregate supply
b. An increase in aggregate demand
c. A decrease in aggregate supply
d. A decrease in aggregate demand
5. If the price level rises and the money wage rate stays the same, what effect will this have upon labor demanded and production? .
6. Explain the effect a rise in price levels would have upon the demand for money and nominal interest rates.
7. Given the same scenario as #6, what will the effect be on real GDP (Explain)?
8. Refer to Figure 19.7, pg. 522. Explain why equilibrium cannot be achieved at point ‘A’.
9. What are the 2 chief causes of Cost-Push inflation?
10. Explain in detail why the Great Depression was so bad as compared to the Great Recession of 2008-2009 .
11. By 2012 the federal government spent close to $1 trillion ($1,000,000,000,000 – that’s really a lot) more than its income (a $1 trillion deficit). Its total debt has increased upwards of $18 trillion.
a. What positive effects do you think this borrowed money could have on the US’s economy (be very specific)?
b. What negative effects do you think this borrowed money could have on the US’s economy (be very specific)?
c. Will all of this debt have an effect on you as a student? as a 55 year old worker?
12. It appears that the US’s net exports have been negative for decades.
a. Explain the potential positive effects this might have on the US consumer.
b. Explain the potential negative effects this could have on US producers.
13. US consumers often purchase goods manufactured in foreign countries.
a. Write 2 reasons why you think the US consumer would purchase a foreign made product over the US made a product.
b. Assume the government decides to pass a law which forbids the purchase of any foreign goods. All goods purchased must be made in the US by US-operated companies. Explain what you think would be the reaction from 1) US consumers 2) US businesses and 3) the US labor force.
14. Would you rather open your new business before a major incident (say 9/11) or after a major incident? Explain your reasoning.

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.