The numerous issues that arise in large organizations regarding decision making can be difficult to properly grasp. There are those leaders who base their conclusions solely on empirical data, preferring to engage in a more quantitative decision-making process. Conversely, there are supervisors who approach decision making from a more holistic perspective, engaging in more qualitative thought processes. It is a reality, especially in budgeting and issues affecting criminal justice agencies, that quantitative decision making takes precedent. However, better conclusions are often drawn when qualitative aspects of a problem or issue are also considered.
Based on information from the required sources, compare and contrast the differences between quantitative and qualitative decision making in public finance. Based on the required videos, provide at least two quantitative and qualitative observations.
In addition to noting the differences between quantitative and qualitative observations, respond to the following elements:
Explain which basic method of decision making you feel provides the most accurate information for budget management; quantitative or qualitative.
Analyze both qualitative and quantitative-based budgetary decision making and describe your preference between the two provided you were in a position of power. Provide a rationale for your preference.
Explain the potential benefits of quantitative observations.
Explain the potential benefits of qualitative observations.
The government aims to support and develop children’s learning; these include the Plowden Report (1967), The National Curriculum (1999), a more recent review known as the Rose Review (2009) and The Primary Cambridge Review (2009). These reviews were heavily influenced by both Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. This assignment will compare two learning theorists and the impact they have on teaching and learning. My main focus will be on Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky however Jerome Bruner will also be mentioned. Firstly, the assignment will describe and critically analyse Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Secondly, I will describe and critically analyse the strengths and weaknesses of Lev Vygotsky’s theory of socio cognitive development. Both learning theorists will be examined and compared along with the implications they have on effective teaching practice. I will then move on to evaluate the impact it has on an individual child in terms of teaching and learning, taking their development needs into account as well as talking about maturation of the child. The school will also be mentioned throughout this assignment. The name of both the child and the school will not be disclosed due to privacy. I will also discover the factors that influence teaching and learning in the four main subjects, these include: Literacy, Numeracy/Mathematics, Science and ICT. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a biologist who moved into studying developments of children’s understanding by the age of 21, this was done through observation, speaking and listening to the children on a task that he had set. “Piaget’s work on children’s intellectual development owed much to his early studies of water snails” (Satterly, 1987, p. 622) Piaget was a well known French speaking Swiss theorist who believed that children learn by active knowledge through hands on experience. To do this the adult should provide the right materials to allow the child to interact and construct effectively. His views on how a child’s mind functions and develops had a great influence especially in education theory. He mainly focused on child maturation to increase the understanding of their world; children cannot carry out certain tasks until they are psychologically mature enough to do so (Child-Development-Guide, 2010). Piaget believed that children’s thinking does not develop smoothly throughout childhood as there are certain points in which it expands and progresses into new aims and capabilities. The transitions took place at about 18 months, 7 years and 11/12 years of age; this meant that before these ages, no matter how bright a child is he/she is not capable of understanding things in certain ways. Piaget used Socratic questioning to get the children to think more about what exactly they are asking or thinking about, the aim of this was to get children to see contradictions in their explanations. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was the central structure to his theory. The acquisition of knowledge in childhood which included processes such as understanding, reasoning, thinking, problem solving, learning, conceptualising and remembering, as a whole understanding all the aspects of human intelligence that are used to make sense of the world. Cognitive >GET ANSWER