Identify four policies the government enacted following the financial crisis. Evaluate what effect these policies would have on the economy from both a short-run and a long-run perspective. Be sure to include:
The distinction between the short-run and long-run economic views and what determines economic output in the relative time periods
A definition of the measures used to determine economic success in the different time periods
A link from each policy back to these distinctions and measures.
Adhere to the following standards:
n attempt to dismantle the inequality of gender in employment the fourth EU key objective is in regards to the eradication of gender based violence. The EU has established the Daphne programme which supports women and children who have suffered as a result of domestic abuse.(cited in europrofem) The commission has also encouraged the criminalisation of trafficking women and children through exploitation. The EU proposes under new directives to reintegrate such vulnerable groups in to the labour market. It also proposes the support of member states to encourage awareness raising campaigns, support networks both for the perpetrators of violence and the victims of abuse. The fifth EU key objective as described in the roadmap is the notion of gender based stereotypes. At present there is still a major problem in regards to inequality in employment. The EUC has identified a gender pay gap has one of the major concern for the European commission according to The Road Map for Gender Equality 2006-2010. In order to improve the present dilemma, there have been many legislative and non legislative developments to combat the challenges of discrimination and encourage gender equality in employment. Furthermore, despite the previously mentioned interventions above, there still persists a major gender ‘pay gap’ which reflects on the overall factors of inequalities and thus discrimination in employment. On average women were earning on average 15% less than men in the European Union in 2005. (Cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007, pg 2) It was found that the gender pay gap still exists due to direct and indirect discrimination factors. It can also be attributed to social and economic factors. In regards to dismantling gender stereotypes the EU recommend ‘gender mainstreaming’ and encourage ESF, ICT programmes in education and culture programmes in schools through media tools. In regards to the sixth and final key objective illustrated in the roadmap for equality in employment, the EU has proposed the development and amendment of policies extending to external neighbouring countries. The EU adheres to recognised values of the Millennium Development Declaration and the Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA). The recent EU strategy for Africa is also committed to encouraging gender equality in external countries. The EU commits to promoting the need for education and freedom of opportunity and health and safety. Above all, it welcomes the participation of all women in the sphere of economic and political life in decision making. Four priority areas have been identified by the Commission these include, that pre-existing legal framework is fully applied and utilised whilst identifying areas for improvement. The active participation of all parties is also to be promoted in all Members of State. In addition to this, the European Strategy for Growth and Jobs should be applied in full to all employers. Above all the notion of good practice at all levels is to be stressed to overcome traditional stereotypes and discriminatory practices. The European Pact for Gender Equality 2006 stresses the importance of the commitments of the Member of states to take critical action in this area. Furthermore, several members of states have reunited to take prominent action regarding the labour market, education, training, and the balance of work and private life. Unfortunately there has been little progress in regards to commitments from the other member of states to take action addressing this issue according to the Commissions annual report on growth and jobs 2006.( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007,pg 8) In defence of the above the Commission in 2007 vowed to improve the quality of statistics used in regards to the gender pay gap, in addition they have also promised to encourage all member of states to set key targets and limits for reducing the pay gap between man and women on the basis of data and findings gathered by the annual reports issued. The Commission is also in progress of setting up action programmes on equal opportunities for its own staff, it is apparent that within public administration there is a major pay gap which is directly influenced by the presence of occupational segregation and the small presence of women in decision making posts. Despite the overwhelming evidence that an increased amount of women are becoming more highly qualified, there is still a persistent fact they are still outnumbered by men in higher positions of hierarchy and importance, both in politics and business.(cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2009,pg 5) According to the European Alliance on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) the notion of equality also poses as a ‘competitive advantage’ as it utilises the staff’s full productive potential. It encourages incentives to support good practice to tackle the inequalities in the pay. Currently the Commission already promotes good practice by raising awareness through the PROGRESS programme. (cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007,pg 9) In addition to the above, the Commission also proposes to introduce gender equality policies, to eradicate structural inequalities within the workplace in regards to improving the profile of occupations which are paid less. For instance, the Framework of actions on gender equality 2007, proposes awareness-raising and training measures in addition to the growth of wage comparison tools and strategies to decrease the pay gap. (cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007,pg10) Conclusion To conclude this assignment the notion of ‘equality’ is integral to the values of the European Union. Despite the European Union making significant progress over time, in regards to developing directives, treaties and legislation. In addition to, the EU has reinforced gender mainstreaming via training and capacity building for those involved in policy making. Statistics indicate that gender inequality still persists in employment. The European Union have a long way in fulfilling key targets in dismantling gender inequality. In my personal opinion the EU key objectives need to be more transparent to the public in terms of setting realistic targets to strengthen gender mainstreaming across all member states in order to achieve change. References: Commission of the European Communities Report 2006 Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions(2006), A Roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010,Brussels,(Online) Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF (Accessed 20/11/2009) Commission of the European Communities Report 2007 Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council,, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions(2007). Tackling the pay gap between women and men, Brussels,(Online) http://www.retepariopportunita.it/Rete_Pari_Opportunita/UserFiles/news/com_pay_gap_.pdf (Accessed 21/11/2009) Commission of the European Communities Report 2009 Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Brussels,(2009) Equality between women and men-2009 Brussels,(Online) http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0077:FIN:EN:PDF (Accessed 21/11/2009) European Union http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union (Accessed 10/11/2009) Euro culture master http://www.euroculturemaster.org/pdf/kunstova.pdf (Accessed 12/11/2009) Europrofem http://www.europrofem.org/contri/2_04_en/en-gend/08en_gen.htm (accessed 23/11/2009) Jorgensen,N.,Bird,J.,Heyhoe,A.,Russell,B.,Savvas,M.,(1997).Sociology:An Interactive Approach,Collins Educational Union History http://www.unionhistory.info/equalpay/roaddisplay.php?irn=785 (Accessed 15/11/2009) Women Lobby http://www.womenlobby.org/site/1abstract.asp?DocID=184&v1ID=&RevID=&namePage=&pageParent=&DocID_sousmenu (Accessyoutubeed 14/11/2009) http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WCSunMx7EJ8C&pg=RA1-PA392&lpg=RA1-PA392&dq=theory-male+nurses+gender+equality&source=bl&ots=Bqru6biKWy&sig=PY0uthcQiq3VFmaaivgF6YEpLPQ&hl=en&ei=wnsdS46lJJeZjAfU_f2PBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CAsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=&f=false>GET ANSWER