Extra Credit Problems (3 points maximum for each solution; organization and clarity matter)
- The star Polaris has a parallax of 0.00758 seconds of arc and an apparent magnitude of
1.97, how far away is it, and what is its absolute magnitude?
- Formalhaut is an A3 V star in the constellation Piscus Austrinus with an apparent
magnitude of 1.2. You may use the ClassAction Spectroscopic Parallax Simulator or use
the H-R diagram below to find absolute magnitude. Use the method of spectroscopic
parallax to determine how far away Formalhaut is. Show your own calculation of
- The star Alnilam has a luminosity of about 240,000 times that of the Sun and a surface
temperature of 25,000K. What is the radius of Alnilam?
- Albireo A is in a visual binary with a companion star Albireo B at an average distance of
72 AU. The larger mass star (Albireo A) is 28 AU from the center of mass. If the period
of the motion is 213 years find the mass of Albireo A and Albireo B.
Americas, the Old-World Europeans became eager to settle and trade with new people. With the movement of people, the exchange of diseases, crops, and culture, are inevitable. The Old World gained new crops such as sweet potatoes and maize, which increased the European populations by huge amounts. The exchange created a much-needed path across the world and in turn, increased trade. Among the many gains the exchange wrought, it also festered losses. European exchange with the New World highlighted the lack of immunity to common bacteria and illnesses that the Native Americans had. The transmission of diseases brought by Europeans to formerly isolated areas caused death and devastation in the New World communities. Europeans spread smallpox, typhus, and smallpox. However, the spread of diseases wasn’t one sided in the Columbian Exchange. Sailors brought syphilis to Europe on the journey home, which caused social stratification in the Old World. The devastative effect of the European diseases on the American population left a demand for labor that outweighed the supply of people able to work. This propelled the forced movement and capture of over 12 million Africans over three centuries (Manning, 1990). Exploration Until then the Western countries had lain on the fringe of civilization, with nothing apparently beyond them but Iceland and small islands. With the discovery of the Cape route and America, nations formerly peripheral found themselves central, with geographical forces impelling them to leadership. The opening of old lands in Asia and new ones in America changed Europe forever, and the Iberian countries understandably felt the changes first. The Portuguese government, for a time, made large profits from its Eastern trade, and individuals prospered; but Oriental luxuries were costly compared with the European goods that Portugal offered, and the balance had to be made up in specie. This eastward drain of gold and silver had gone on long before Portuguese imperial times, but it was now intensified. Much of the bullion reaching the Orient did not circulate but was hoarded or made into ornaments; consequently, there was no inflation in Asia, and prices there did not rise enough to create a demand for Western goods, which would have reversed the flow of bullion from the West. The Portuguese obtained most of the precious metal for this trade from spice sales through Antwerp and from Africa. The drain proved critical, and, by the reign of John III, the government found itself hard pressed economically and forced to abandon overseas posts that were a financial burden. Later, beginning in the 17th century,>GET ANSWER