Describe the foundations of mental health nursing.
Communication: Displaying capability in writing, reading, and oral communication; understanding of non-verbal language.
It will be carried out with two students working together. This is a “role play exercise,” in which one student is the student nurse, and the other will role play as a client. In this assignment, the nursing student will be demonstrating the therapeutic nurse-client relationship and analyzing the therapeutic and nontherapeutic techniques used. You will take turns in the roles.
This is not about always having therapeutic responses. It is about learning from practice and review. It is expected that you will think of other ways to respond or interact with the client that may be more therapeutic after the interaction is terminated. After the conversation is over, you will complete in IPR form.
The client roles are:
• Mrs. Alvarez is a 34-year-old female who has lived in this country for the past 10 yrs. She is a stay-at-home mom with three small children. Her husband works two jobs to support the family. Lately, she has been extremely anxious and fears that her children will become ill or injured. This seems to be an unrealistic concern, but she has been unable to sleep well and has lost 15 lbs. in the past month. She is a voluntary admission and states she knows she needs help.
• Diagnosis: Generalized Anxiety Disorder
• Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective coping
You will select the role you wish as a client and take turns switching roles. After the conversation, you will document the interactions using the form provided and following the guidelines instructions for each column.
IPR Form Explanation
The IPR is completed with the form to guide you, and the rubric to explain the grading process for content.
• The first column is for you, the nursing student’s, comments/ questions, and responses. You may want to include the introduction process. It is understandable if the initial conversation is more superficial to establish rapport. You may not want to include all of this but move on to the more focused interaction. Your nonverbal communication is included here.
• Then, the conversation will move to a focus on the client’s feelings, concerns, issues as he/she has identified them. After the introduction, it may be beneficial to establish with the client a short- term goal for the interaction.
• The second column is for the client’s comments, questions, responses. Also, the nonverbal reactions of the client are included in this column.
• The middle column is for you to write what you are thinking or feeling.
• The last two columns are for you to document the technique that you used in that portion of the conversation. If it is a non – therapeutic response, you are to write the response and think of how you could revise to more therapeutic response. You can change any response if you think of how, you could have responded differently but, identify and change all non – therapeutic responses.
Remember, this is an assignment that will assist you in all communication with others.
Explanation of the Rubric Criteria for Interpersonal Process Recording (IPR)
• Communication (20 verbal entries, ten nonverbal, ten techniques)
• Criteria 1 Nursing Interaction (verbal and nonverbal) – Nursing statements and questions demonstrate a positive, caring approach and show insight into the client needs. These interchanges will include the introduction process, but not the more superficial interchanges. Nonverbal communication techniques are also recognized. Thoughts and feelings are identified and documented.
• Criteria 2 – The client verbal statements and questions are documented. Nonverbal communication is also observed and interpreted. You may also identify defense mechanism(s) used by the client.
• Criteria 3 – All communication techniques used are identified (using titles previously reviewed).
• Criteria 4 – All non-therapeutic techniques to be identified and changed to a therapeutic method. If in the review of the interaction, a more appropriate or therapeutic approach (verbal or nonverbal) is identified, document how this response/ statement would be changed
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.