Identify two differences between the 1983 and 1992 AAMR definitions of Developmentally Delayed, formally known as, “Mental Retardation”. What did the President’s Committee on Mental Retardation mean when they used the term “six-hour retarded child” in their 1970 report? What does this suggest for educators today?
CC is a field of study which focuses on the study of crime and deviance through the lenses of culture/ societal setting. Culture itself is of course difficult to define, but generally maybe described as the values, meanings, and practices through which people make sense of the world (O’Brien, 2005) CC in a postmodern world puts a lot of emphasis on globalisation, fluidity, and transition. It focuses on power relations and symbolism to explain crime and deviance. It is sociological in emphasis and is critical of what it considers to be the crudely empirical ‘number- crunching’ and ‘control’ schools of criminology that became especially influential in the 1980’s and onwards. Deviance, which is central to CC, is an action or behaviour that does not conform to social norms, so behaviour that is unusual may be considered deviant (Potter, 1993). Through the CC approach we can gain insight into why laws are made and broken, and how norms are created (Alicke and Rose, 2012). The Chicago School of Criminology has been a key influence in the development of CC. CC draws from cultural studies, critical theory and ethnographic methodologies. CC was developed by Ferrell & Sanders (1995) and employed as well by Redhead and Kane in the late 90’s. Three decades before Ferrell & Sanders gave more attention to the role of culture in crime, Cohen in 1971 wrote of subjective meaning in culturally informed criminological issues (Cohen, 1971). CC expands the agenda that Cohen wrote about by including and exploring complex attributions and the importance between media, political affiliations, subcultures, etc. Generally the field takes into account factors that give identity and meaning to groups. Theorists also argue that culture is the result of social factors like class and ethnicity. (Ferrell, Hayward and Young, 2008, p2) CC acknowledges the importance of popular culture constructions and the portrayal of cultures in the mainstream media. Cultural Criminology also takes account of the development of globalisation and modernity in society, which leads to uncertainty and diversity in society, ultimately leading to the phenomenon explained as>GET ANSWER