Cover all types of crimes and the punishment and method for them. Cover the laws . • Examples : punishment for treason, adultery, theft, The different types of punishments inflicted among the Romans, were fines, (damnum,) bonds, (vincula,) stripes, (verbera,) retaliation, (talio,) infamy, (ignominia,) banishment, (exilium,) slavery, (servitus,) and death.
The Factors Effecting the Unwillingness of Physicians to take an interest in the Family Physical Program in Tehran's Province Health System Unique Presentation: The present examination is an endeavor to study the explanations behind the doctors' hesitance to partake in the family physical program in the Tehran Province wellbeing framework. Strategies: Considering this reason, the examination is a connected work brought out through a correlative strategy in Tehran's Province Health System in 2012.(IRAN) The investigation populace was involved every one of the doctors in the Tehran Province wellbeing framework. Members were chosen through enumeration. A survey was utilized for information gathering and the information were dissected utilizing SPSS16. Results: The mean purpose of monetary stage, work conditions, wellbeing, welfare, basic hierarchical, and social-social issues in the wellbeing focuses under examination were not as much as midpoint. Moreover, a measurably noteworthy relationship was found between these issues and the inclination of doctors to partake in the family doctor program (P<0.05). Decision: The outcomes showed a noteworthy connection between the issues of doctors and their inclination to participate in the family doctor program in Tehran. Given the need of making inspiration among doctors to participate in the program adequately and obstinately, taking care of the doctors' issues gives off an impression of being powerful in spurring the doctors in such manner. Catchphrases: Family Physician, Referral System, Problems of Family Physicians, Health Centers Presentation Wellbeing is one of the foremost rights and a profitable capital at each social level . Along the fundamental target of the national wellbeing framework, or, in other words general wellbeing where the solid residents have ability to partake in monetary and social exercises , there are different assignments to be satisfied by the wellbeing framework. These errands incorporate raising trust in a solid life, reacting to sensible desires for the general population, decreasing social holes (social equity) and giving money related inclusion to restorative administrations . It is basic, in this way, to plan and embrace a legitimate model for wellbeing administrations to acknowledge wellbeing destinations, keep up/enhance wellbeing, and enhance level with access to wellbeing administrations. In such manner, many have bolstered the possibility of a wellbeing framework in which all natives paying little heed to their living condition and place (even those living in remote regions) approach sufficient specific wellbeing administrations. Such administrations are given by the offices where specialists are prepared dependent on the accessible assets in the most brief possible time and for sensible expenses as required by social and time obliges . Indeed, family doctor projects and referral frameworks are in accordance with the acknowledgment of an essential consideration wellbeing framework that completes significant potential assets towards the enhancement of the wellbeing states of the general public . The family doctor program is a far reaching wellbeing framework and among the principle accomplishments of this program are helping individuals to allude to the correct expert and an expansion in general society fulfillment of wellbeing administrations . Moreover, the American Physician Academy trusts that the family doctor framework is the best and best approach to give wellbeing administrations to patients . Notwithstanding this, the legislature of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in participation with the Ministry of Welfare and Social Security, Ministry of Health, Treatment, Medical Education, and Health Service Insurance Org. set off a rustic medical coverage programs through a referral framework dependent on a family doctor program in 2005. This program, considered as one of the principle components of wellbeing framework advancement, was planned to extend the medical coverage inclusion and to elevate square with access to wellbeing indicative administrations . Notwithstanding providing wellbeing administrations required by the general population, the family doctor program forestalls carelessness of patients' privilege or any maltreatment of individuals' have to wellbeing administrations . Given that the family doctor program is an across the country program and all protection associations take an interest in this program, it is fundamental to overview the execution of the program with respect to usage, quality, and amount of the administrations gave to guaranteed patients. By this review, the shortcoming and points of interest of the program can be featured. Thusly, the family doctor program may prompt monstrous changes in treatment conduct models and also changes in utilization designs in this field . Santos and Amado trust that the information of a family doctor to give essential consideration administrations prompts a long haul connection between the family and the doctor; or, in other words of the family doctor program . Likewise, positioning the wellbeing administrations by the referral framework gives the general population in need access to more particular administrations dependent on their actual needs . At first, the referral visits the family doctor and, if necessary, the doctor prescribes them to an exceptional professional. The unique professional, at that point, checks the patients, does the required measures, records the measures in the patients' document, and returns the patients to the family doctor . In spite of the fact that, the family doctor program is at first planned to enhance community to medicinal services frameworks and cuts the pointless restorative expenses, there are confirmations that the program isn't free of shortcomings . In his investigation titled "difficulties of family doctors in the realm of the 1980s" Donald Rice (1980), examined the status of family doctors and difficulties in front of them in various nations and featured some principle challenges including budgetary help for the alumni, pay of the doctors and the staff from network sources, et cetera. After the usage of wellbeing systems, family doctors are the following greatest change in wellbeing frameworks, which guarantees to take care of a considerable lot of the issues of the wellbeing framework. It is sensible to expect an assortment of monetary, social, and social issues in front of the program and disappointments to survive. These issues undermine first level of administrations and the weakness'. Most importantly, taking care of an issue needs building up a precise understanding to the issue. Breaking down the causes and the components viable on high turnovers of family doctors is the initial step to achieve a correct arrangement to enhance wellbeing administrations across the nation. Strategies The investigation is an elucidating diagnostic work completed on the Tehran Province wellbeing framework in 2012. Given incoherency of the regions under examination and affectability of the issue, a registration was taken in the framework and every one of the 100 doctors in the framework consented to take an interest. No testing was done in this examination and all the investigation populace partook in the study. Polls were utilized for social affair the information. These polls were isolated into two areas. The primary area incorporated the statistic data of the individuals who had participated in the overview. The second area incorporated the inquiries which demonstrated the reluctance of the doctors towards the family doctor program. The consequences of these surveys were characterized into five primary tomahawks; 1-monetary factors (questions 1-6); 2-work conditions, wellbeing, welfare, and instructive factors (questions 7-12); 3-precise authoritative factors (questions 13-18); 4-hierarchical regulatory factors (questions 19-24); and 5-social and social factors (questions 25-30). The poll was planned dependent on Likert's five-point scale. The legitimacy of the surveys was endorsed by ten specialists. Likewise, the solidness was picked up by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient test. The gathered information were dissected utilizing elucidating and inferential insights in SPSS. Among expressive insights recurrence, recurrence rate, mean, and standard deviation were utilized. Additionally with the end goal to review the autonomy/reliance of the factors, Chi Square was utilized as inferential measurements. Results Female and male members comprised 65% and 35% of the example aggregate individually. What's more, 24% of the members were unmarried and 76% were hitched. With respect to status, 68% had lifetime business and 32% were utilized in the program for a particular time. The normal age of the members was 34 and the most youthful and most established members were 25 and 54 years of age separately. Besides, 23% of the members were at the age scope of 25-35, 58% were at the age scope of 35-45; and 19% were at the age scope of 45-55. Work records additionally demonstrated that the most minimal work encounter was 1 year and the most noteworthy work encounter was 29 years. By and large, the members had 10 years of work involvement; 30% under 19 years, half between 10 to 20 years, and 20% between 20 to 30 years.>GET ANSWER