1] Think about what you read: What are some of the ways people commonly respond to bids? Which ways are harmful? Why?
2] For what reasons might you turn away from a family member/loved one, friend, or work/school colleague?
3] For what reasons might you turn against a family member/loved one, friend, or work/school colleague?
4] Mistakes Receiving Bids – write down 6 mistakes you sometime make when receiving a bid.
5] Look at the 6 mistakes you sometime make, pick one, and tell us the story of what happened when you made that mistake.
world that is, for the time being, at peace. Almost immediately, however, the violence of childbirth breaks through the calm, and as the central peasant character departs for St. Petersburg, clouds mar the once clear skies, symbolic of a peace disrupted and foreshadowing of things to come. Pudovkin employs the recurrence of cloud imagery throughout the film to suggest the gathering of a storm. This is echoed in St. Pe-tersburg, where dense black clouds of smoke rise in and from the factories, surrounding the workers and obscuring the sky-moving quickly, as if carried by a heavy wind. Water, too, re-flects the coming storm-the peaceful waters of the estuary in the opening scene give way in St. Petersburg to the dark ripples of the Baltic Sea. Pudovkin's montage of this imagery is carefully placed throughout the film so as to mirror the rising tensions in his central narrative. Thus, when the storm finally breaks, the metaphorical collides with the physical-as the battle rages, so does the storm. Turbulent waves crash against the shore, and dark clouds fill the sky; at the front, sol-diers crash through pools of water as the rain pours down, and billows of smoke obscure the landscape. In St. Petersburg, too, the tempest rages as the Bolsheviks storm the Winter Palace. As the action and the film wind to a close, the smoke clears, the sky lightens, and we are left with the aftermath. In this manner, Pudovkin punctuates his narrative with symbolic effect-the storm passes. Similarly, Pudovkin's depiction of the elite is heavily characterized by his use of metaphoric imagery, much of which aims towards the dehumanization of the bourgeoisie. As the central peasant character and his mother enter St. Petersburg for the first time, they are dwarfed by towering monuments, cold statues of the czars on horseback, which, shot from low angles, give one the sense of being trampled underfoot. Juxtaposed with an image a policeman, haughty and aloof and also on horseback, the statues are equated with authority, gazing down from on high with a stony, inhuman glare. Likewise, the peasant and his mother are "overshadowed by the sta-tue of an apostle of St. Isaac's cathedral, seeming even more insignificant and insect-like" (Sar-geant, 99). Here, Pudovkin establishes an opposition, setting the poor, working class against the monumental might of the elite, who, in a later scene, are filmed in opulent garb from the neck down-a faceless bureaucracy. Pudovkin returns to these statues several times during the film, though perhaps most significantly during one of the final sequences, the storming of the Winter Palace. At the end of this sequence, the camera shows a statue destroyed by a blast from the bat-tleship Aurora and toppled from its lofty perch-an image that echoes the toppling of the bour-geoisie, which is further emphasized by Pudovkin's immediate cut to an intertitle: "St. Petersburg was no more." Perhaps the most powerfully symbolic sequence in The End of St. Petersburg comes at the film's climax. Through parallel editing, Pudovkin ties together two seemingly unrelated scenes in a manner that enhances their combined visual significance substantially. In one, Russian soldiers at the front charge up a hill to their deaths at the hands of German machine guns. At the same time, an army of bourgeoisie men in black suits rush up a staircase to the stock exchange in quest of munitions company stock. As A. R. Duckworth notes in The Motley View, this "parallel montage technique . . . imbues the action of buying stock, and capitalism, with the violence and murder of the battlefield scene." He further observes that "as the battlefield fills up with wounded and lifeless bodies, both Russian and German, the scene cuts to the stock exchange market rate rising>GET ANSWER