1.) Identify and analyze Leon R. Kass’ distinction between “full human dignity and “basic human dignity.” Use specific examples from Kass’ article to highlight the differences between these two definitions of human dignity
2.) Identify James M. Gustafson and explain the distinction he makes between ethics and morals. Make sure you clearly analyze Gustafson’s key points as outlined in the text.
3.) Briefly explain how God is the Center of Value in any system of Christian morality. What religious beliefs about God influence your way of acting in a Christian way? (This is what Gula calls “onlooks”). E.g., what Biblical stories have influences your life (narratives, parables, etc.). .
4.) What does Gula meant by a “personalistic” view of morality? How should we view the human person in terms of reason informed by faith? Give two instances mentioned by Gula of this personalistic vision. (Gula gives four).
Bowlby's Attachment Theory: Applications in Social Work Distributed: third August, 2018 Last Edited: third August, 2018 Disclaimer: This paper has been put together by an understudy. This isn't a case of the work composed by our expert paper authors. You can see tests of our expert work here. Any assessments, discoveries, conclusions or proposals communicated in this material are those of the writers and don't really mirror the perspectives of UK Essays. Depict and Evaluate Attachment Theory and Assess Its Value for Social Work. Connection hypothesis, spearheaded by John Bowlby, holds that a person's enthusiastic and relational improvement all through life can be comprehended, and is at last molded by and established in, an arrangement of connection practices they shape and disguise amid a basic period in early life. As indicated by Bowlby, connection conduct in kids emerges out of an inborn, instinctual requirement for security and solidness. (Bowlby, 1969) Though a kid can frame numerous connections, there is generally one essential figure they put at the highest point of their order. This is normally the kid's mom. Be that as it may, there is nothing inborn about the 'maternal' relationship in essence that sets up its power over other connection connections. It is just that moms are regularly the most touchy and responsive guardians on a reliable premise over the longest timeframe. There are imperative quantitative and subjective qualifications Bowlby attracts to appropriately depict the connection relationship. The subjective qualification needs to do with the idea of providing care. Youngsters frame connections in light of the affectability and responsiveness of a grown-up's response to connection practices. Thus, a grown-up who sustains a youngster yet who is in the meantime obtuse or inert will be a more improbable possibility for connection than a grown-up who does not nourish them but rather stays delicate and responsive in their communications with the kid. Indeed, even with the subjective conditions met, the connection relationship is as yet in light of their reliable application over a broadened timeframe. It isn't sufficient to be responsive and touchy as a parental figure in some case. Sound connection connections are framed with these subjective conditions legitimately met after some time. The essential connection figure is typically the most steady and ceaselessly give individual who communicates the youngster. Besides, this quantitative qualification gives off an impression of being the more noteworthy of the two in shaping connection connections on the grounds that the absence of proper parental figure responsiveness has been demonstrated not to separate or negate the connection relationship, but rather to bring about undesirable and even obsessive connection practices. (Ainsworth, 1985) So the requirement for security and solidness with respect to the newborn child brings about connection practices coordinated most normally at a parent, generally the mother, who turns into their essential connection figure. The idea of these practices is controlled by how the essential connection figure reacts to them. Subsequently, the connection relationship mirrors the association between baby require and parental reaction. A standout amongst the most promptly identifiable connection practices is closeness chasing, where the tyke reacts to distressful or alarming jolt by searching out their essential connection figure. It is this security that the newborn child's instinctual conduct is intended to accomplish. The part of this security is basic for the arrangement of a mental soundness that enables appropriate advancement to happen. Detachment (or the risk of partition) from the parental figure, or improper guardian reactions to connection conduct, can bring about alert and nervousness which capture the improvement of the youngster as they look to restore the security that enables them to normally create. Bowlby distinguishes the era of a half year to two years old as a basic stage where a large portion of the essential connections, and after which, the central disguises of an 'inward working model' are shaped. Amid this time newborn children and little children start to show connection practices that bring forth associations with guardians which will frame the reason for how they communicate and identify with whatever is left of the world. Bowlby depicts the 'inward working model', which creates after the 'affectability period', as a premise of comprehension against which the tyke relates and reacts to everything from the experience and investigation of feelings to the arrangement and comprehension of human connections and associations. The 'inner working model' isn't unavoidably settled amid the basic time frame, yet it is most intensely and at first affected there. Thus the formative significance, and effect, of this period on the tyke is of colossal hugeness to their solid development and future prosperity. While Bowlby's model perspectives connections as the building squares of an 'inside working model' that keeps on creating all through the kid's life, it doesn't dig profoundly into the part of security made by connection practices, and the different sorts of conduct that can take after from different parental reactions. Here, Mary Ainsworth's expansion to connection hypothesis is comparatively spearheading. Ainsworth distinguishes the part of the essential connection figure as a 'protected base' from which the kid is allowed to investigate. (Ainsworth et al., 1978) This investigation is a characteristic piece of the tyke's improvement and will happen interestingly as indicated by the given components exhibit in the identity and cosmetics of every kid. Such investigation happens, be that as it may, under the states of solid connection. To recognize distinctive sorts of connections, Ainsworth directed an observational examination known as the 'interesting circumstance' which yielded three starting orders of connection conduct: secure, safe, avoidant. Later investigations following up on this work included a fourth: complicated, generally coming about because of injurious circumstances or rationally unsound parental reaction. Together, these four classes shape the ordinarily acknowledged groupings of connection conduct inside the tyke/parental figure relationship in connection hypothesis. In the bizarre circumstance think about, a mother went into a stay with her kid. After they were allowed to sit unbothered and the youngster started playing with toys an outsider went into the room and started chatting with the mother, at that point moved toward the tyke with a toy. The mother left as the outsider drew in the youngster, at that point returned. The tyke was then taken off alone after which the more bizarre, at that point the mother progressively returned. At long last, the more peculiar left and the mother and youngster were distant from everyone else together in the room once more. The examination took a gander at how the youngsters reacted to the nearness and nonattendance of their mom and an outsider, in various varieties, and how they investigated the room and connected with the toys. Safely connected newborn children investigated the room while staying mindful of their connection figure's area. They were frightened by their mom's takeoff from the room and support by her arrival. They were likewise more agreeable and willing to draw in the outsider within the sight of their mom, and more alright with the more unusual's communication with their mom missing than those not safely appended. Avoidant unreliably connected youngsters indicated little reaction upon their mom's takeoff or return while safe shakily appended kids showed extraordinary misery upon their mom's flight and opposition upon gathering, as though the requirement for the guardian had been perceived however not joined by a sentiment of security in tolerating their soothing motions, conceivably because of conflicting parental affectability and responsiveness to the kid's needs. Here plainly the consistency of parental accessibility and the way of parental reaction are enter in deciding the basic structure of how youngsters respond to their condition and associate with others. We see with Bowlby and Ainsworth the improvement of a model concentrated on the most punctual phases of relational and passionate advancement which not just distinguishes the correlative effect upon the prosperity of kids in later life, yet gives a structure to understanding the causal components associated with various kinds of recognized practices. This is an especially valuable instrument in the field of social work where horde factors frequently muddle the perspective of how best to affect a kid's welfare. (Howe et al., 1999) Understanding the formative angles that advise sound conduct and development is an essential apparatus in facing a significant number of the difficulties confronting social specialists today. This is clear in the main case of Howe et al's. Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment, and Family Support: A Practice and Assessment Model. His first case is of a lady, Melanie, who was raised by a requesting, oppressive, and rationally unsound mother, who was sexually mishandled by her dad consistently (He passed on of a heart-assault the night after he had sex with her at fourteen years old), and who has three kids. Her most seasoned child, Peter, age 7, has displayed fierce conduct toward other youngsters, exhibited activities of burglary, illegal conflagration, cold-bloodedness toward creatures, and has no companions. Her second child, age 3, is calm and she is uncertain about her capacity to bring up her newborn child girl. Howe portrays how "a formative point of view in light of individuals' over a wide span of time socio-passionate encounters, especially inside cozy connections, offers a ground-breaking knowledge into human identity, styles of providing care and the character of relational life." (Howe et al., 1999, p.3) It is this understanding empowers a comprehension of underlying drivers in the midst of the haze of formative multifaceted nature that plays into the difficulties confronting social specialists. With connection hypothesis as a device, filtering through the haze of elements that shape a person�>GET ANSWER