Purpose: This lab is to (1) introduce to students National Instruments (NI) ELVIS (Educational Laboratory and Virtual Instrumentation Suite) II and Multisim as a tool for circuit design and testing, prototyping, and instrumentation; (2) create and simulate simple RLC circuits with Multisim, build the circuits on ELVIS II+, and test them with the built-in instruments multimeter and oscilloscope and; (3) establish the concept of and gain hands-on experience in signal processing by examining low-pass and high-pass filters.
National Instruments (NI) ELVIS is a hands-on design and prototyping platform that integrates 12 most commonly used instruments, such as digital multimeter, oscilloscope, and function generator, into a compact form ideal for lab or classroom. NI ELVIS connects to a computer through USB connection, providing quick and easy acquisition and display of measurements. Based on NI LabVIEW graphical system design software, NI ELVIS offers the flexibility of virtual instrumentation and the ability of customizing your application.
Multisim is an industry-standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis) simulation environment, which helps students gain hands-on experience through practical application in designing, prototyping, and testing electrical circuits. The Multisim design approach saves prototype iterations and optimizes printed circuit board designs.
Multisim allows the use of multiple instruments, which means that the number of operating characteristics that may be monitored at the same time is unlimited. Because of that, students are able to observe the effects of changing a given component in every area of interest around the schematic.
Lab 4-3 Multisim, ELVIS II, and Basic Circuit – AC Circuit
The third section of Lab 4 aims at (1) introducing to students more virtual instruments in Multisim or those that are integrated into ELVIS II for circuit analysis and (2) gaining students more hands-on experiences with LabVIEW, Multisim, and ELVIS II.
Pre-lab Assignment (25 pts in total):
- Voltage gain or loss provides information about how an input signal is altered by the circuit for the amplitude (the vertical shift). When the amplitude of the output signal is larger than that of the input, it is called gain, otherwise, loss. Voltage gain or loss is defined as the ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage, or Vout/Vin, and is usually expressed with the logarithmic unit decibel (dB). What is the relationship between Vout/Vin and dB? Research and find the Vout/Vin and dB conversion equation and include it in your lab report (5 pts).
- Phase shift (in degree) between the input and output provides information about how an input signal is altered by the circuit for the phase (the horizontal shift). Phase shift can be obtained by finding the time delay (i.e. the time difference between the input and output waveforms displayed on an oscilloscope) and then converting the time delay into phase shift. Research and find the phase shift/time delay conversion equation and include the equation in your lab report (5 pts).
- What is the definition of cutoff frequency (i.e. corner frequency)? Research and find the answer and included a brief description of it in your own words in your lab report (5 pts).
- Research bode plot for typical high pass filter; include a bode plot for typical high pass filter, of your own drawing or a figure from any source (cite if so), with the cutoff frequency marked on the plot, in your lab report (5 pts).
- Research and find two circuit diagrams for typical active high-pass filter (non-inverting and without amplification) and passive-high pass filter; include the two circuit diagrams (cite the source) in your lab report (5 pts).
Exercise #1: Low-Pass Filter (75 pts in total):
- Open “Exercise #1”. Double click on and open (if they are not opened) each of the instruments (Function Generator or XFG1, Oscilloscope or XSC1, and Bode Plotter or XBP2), Figure 1-0, so that you can set simulation conditions such as frequency and amplitude in the XFG1, run the circuit and visualize the input/output signal in the XSC1, and find the frequency and amplitude response of the circuit to the input in the XBP2.
• For Function Generator or XFG1, only frequency and amplitude are needed to change for your exercises/assignments.
• For Bode Plotter or XBP2, (1) both amplitude and phase of the output signal in relation to the input can be examined, under “Mode” and (2) the scale of x (frequency) and y (dB) axes can be adjusted under “Horizontal” and “Vertical”, respectively. For these simulations, use 1 Hz/100 kHz as the start/stop frequency for the “Magnitude” plot and 0 Deg./-100 Deg. as the upper/lower limit for the “Phase” plot.
• For Oscilloscope or XSC1, you can change the x and y scale under “Timebase” and “Channel A”/“Channel B”, respectively, the input signal is displayed by “Channel A” in white and the output by “Channel B” in green (the color of the waveform can be changed by right clicking the wire in the circuit and select “Properties”“Net color”).
- Assignment #1-1 (i.e. Table 1-1, 20 pts): Run the circuit with, (1) Vp = 5 V; (2) at the three designated frequencies and; (3) with the POT set at 90 %. Find the decibel (dB) values and Vout/Vin ratios from the Bode Plotter and the Oscilloscope, respectively. Report the values in Table 1-1 as your Multisim simulation data.
- Assignment #1-2 (i.e. Table 1-2, 25 pts in total):
• Add an NI ELVISmx Function Generator to the circuit, replace XFG1 with it, and connect it to the circuit as signal source. Add an NI ELVISmx Oscilloscope and an NI ELVISmx Bode Analyzer (all of them available from Multisim “NI ELVISmx Instrument” toolbar) to the circuit and connect them the same way as XSC1 and XBP2.
• Run the circuit with the following settings, and find the decibel (dB) values and Vout/Vin ratios from the NI ELVISmx Bode Analyzer. Report the values in Table 1-2 as your Virtual ELVIS II measurement data.
o NI ELVISmx Function Generator: Vpp = 10 V and at the same three designated frequencies;
o NI ELVISmx Bode Analyzer: Start/Stop Frequency = 1 Hz/100 kHz and Steps = 50 (See Fig. 1-1 for details);
o With the POT set at 90 %.
• Assignment #1-3 (15 pts): Put a screenshot picture that includes the XBP2 “Magnitude” plot and “Phase” plot with the two plots from the NI ELVISmx Bode Analyzer, side by side and with cursors pointing at one same (closest to each other) frequency of your choice.
• Assignment #1-4 (15 pts): Put a screenshot picture that includes the input and output on both XSC1 and the NI ELVISmx Oscilloscope for the simulation at Frequency = 900 Hz and with the SAME scales, i.e. “Timebase” and “Channel A”/“Channel B” in XSC1 vs. “Time/Div” and “Scale Volts/Div” for the both channels in the NI ELVISmx Oscilloscope.
- Shown in Fig. 1-2 is what the physical circuit looks like on an ELVIS. The two brown wires are not part of the circuit, but to be used to measure/adjust the resistance of the POT with the DMM with two selected pins, either 1 and 2 or 2 and 3, but not 1 and 3;
- The two yellow arrows indicate which two pins of the POT are to be used for the referred resistance values;
- There is a green ground wire at the very bottom of the picture.
Figure 1-0 Multisim simulation of a low-pass filter
Figure 1-1 Change step size (“Steps”) to acquire more data points; activate cursors (“Cursor Settings”) to find gain and phase information from the plots (indicated at the bottom of the graph as the cursors move along the plots).
Exercise #2: Active and Passive High-Pass Filter (25 pts in total): (- IGNORE)
- Open “Exercise #2” and double click on each of the instruments (two Bode Plotters and two Oscilloscopes) to open four additional windows.
• The upper portion of the circuit represents the active high-pass filter with an operational amplifier (op amp), while the lower portion of the circuit the passive.
• Both filters are connected to a pair of bode plotter and oscilloscope, allowing to examine the filtering behaviors as well as input and output waveforms.
- Assignment #2-1 (5 pts): Run this circuit at Frequency = 1052 Hz and amplitude = 1 Vrms. Put a screenshot picture of your results for the two XSC’s in your lab report.
• rms stands for root mean square, 1 Vrms = 0.707 Vp = 0.3535 Vpp. The figure below shows their relationships (https://circuitdigest.com/calculators/rms-voltage-calculator).
- Assignment #2-2: Find the dB values from both XBP’s at designated frequencies and fill in the “Multisim Simulation” column of Table 2 with these values. Find the cutoff frequency values for both filters from the Multisim simulations as well.
- Assignment #2-3:
• Build the circuit on ELVIS II (Figure 2). Run the circuit at Frequency = 1052 Hz and amplitude = 2.83 Vpp, and put a screenshot picture of your results (including those from both the Function Generator and Oscilloscope) in your lab report. The output waveform should look similar to the one you obtained from Multisim simulation.
• Find the dB values from the built-in “Bode Analyzer” (Use Start Frequency = 1 Hz, Stop Frequency = 100 kHz, and 10 Steps/decade) for all the designated frequencies in the “ELVIS II Measurement” column of Table 2.
• Find the cutoff frequency for both filters from the ELVIS measurements as well.
NOTES: (1) The red arrow in Figure 2 is where the left end of that green wire should actually go – the 4th hole from the top, NOT the 3rd, as ground. (2) The two white arrows are the power supply wires for the 741 CN operational amplifier (Op Amp), which connect with +15 V and -15 V, respectively, although they may not look so in the picture. The 741CN Op Amp pinouts shown below. (3) The circuit shown in Figure 2 is for measuring the active high-pass filter, with the op amp. For measuring the passive high-pass filter, you need to rewire. (4) The difference between the data from Multisim simulations and that from ELVIS II measurements for both the active and passive high-pass filters tells the difference between the virtual and physical instruments.
Figure 1-2 Circuit for “Exercise #1”
Figure 2 Circuit for “Exercise #2” (Active and passive high-pass filter)
Assignments (Report all values using 3 significant figures)
- Table 1-1 for Assignment #1-1 (Multisim simulation) (20 pts)
(Hz) POT (%) Amplitude Ratio (Vout/Vin) Phase Shift (degrees)
(dB** and Vout/Vin Ratio in %) Oscilloscope
(%) Bode Plotter Oscilloscope
( )* —————– —————–
- Fill in with the actual frequency value read from Multisim Bode Plotter.
** dB values can be read from Multisim Bode Plotter directly and are required to report in this column and the Vout/Vin ratios in % can be converted from the dB values which are also required to report in this column as well. The voltage ratios reported in this column are to be compared with the voltage ratios obtained from Oscilloscope in the next column, both in %.
- Table 1-2 for Assignment #1-2 (Virtual ELVIS II measurement) (25 pts)
(Hz) POT (%) Amplitude Ratio (Vout/Vin) Phase Shift (degrees)
(dB** and Vout/Vin Ratio in %) Oscilloscope
(%) Bode Analyzer Oscilloscope
( )* 90
( )# —————– —————–
( )* —————– —————–
( )* —————– —————–
- Fill in with the actual frequency value read from Bode Analyzer.
** Same as Table-1.
Fill in with the actual resistance value adjusted from the POT.
- Table 2 for Assignment #2-2 and #2-3 (25 pts in total) (- IGNORE)
(Hz) Multisim Simulation
(Bode Plotter) ELVIS II Measurement
(dB) Phase Shift
Active/Passive (degrees) Active/Passive
(dB) Phase Shift
Cutoff Freq. ————— —————
Text review of this exposition: This page of the exposition has 2111 words. Download the full form above. The United States is home to probably the most infamous and productive chronic executioners ever. Names, for example, Ted Bundy, Gary Ridgeway, and the Zodiac Killer have become easily recognized names because of the terrible idea of their wrongdoings. One of the most productive chronic executioners in American history is John Wayne Gacy. Nicknamed the Killer Clown due to his calling, Gacy assaulted and killed at any rate 33 adolescent young men and youngsters somewhere in the range of 1972 and 1978, which is one of the most elevated realized casualty checks. Gacy's story has become so notable that his wrongdoings have been included in mainstream society and TV shows, for example, American Horror Story: Hotel and Criminal Minds. Scientific science has, and keeps on playing, a significant function in the understanding of the case and recognizable proof of the people in question. John Wayne Gacy's set of experiences of sexual and psychological mistreatment was instrumental in arousing specialist's curiosity of him as a suspect. John Wayne Gacy was conceived on March 17, 1942, in Chicago, Illinois. Being the main child out of three youngsters, Gacy had a stressed relationship with his dad, who drank vigorously and was regularly oppressive towards the whole family (Sullivan and Maiken 48). In 1949, a contractual worker, who was a family companion, would pet Gacy during rides in his truck; in any case, Gacy never uncovered these experiences to his folks because of a paranoid fear of requital from his dad (Foreman 54). His dad's mental maltreatment proceeded into his young grown-up years, and Gacy moved to Las Vegas where he worked quickly in the rescue vehicle administration prior to turning into a funeral home specialist (Sullivan and Maiken 50). As a morgue chaperon, Gacy was intensely engaged with the preserving cycle and conceded that one night, he moved into the final resting place of a perished adolescent kid and stroked the body (Cahill and Ewing 46). Stunned at himself, Gacy re-visitations of Chicago to live with his family and graduates from Northwestern Business College in 1963, and acknowledges an administration student position with Nunn-Bush Shoe Company. In 1964, Gacy is moved to Springfield and meets his future spouse, Marlynn Myers. In Springfield, Gacy has his subsequent gay experience when a colleague unsteadily performed oral sex on him (London 11:7). Gacy moves to Waterloo, Iowa, and starts a family with Myers. In any case, after routinely undermining his significant other with whores, Gacy submits his originally known rape in 1967 upon Donald Vorhees. In the coming months, Gacy explicitly mishandles a few different young people and is captured and accused of oral homosexuality (Sullivan and Maiken 60). On December 3, 1968, Gacy is indicted and condemned to ten years at the Anamosa State Penitentiary. Gacy turns into a model detainee at Anamosa and is conceded parole in June of 1970, an only a short time after his condemning. He had to migrate to Chicago and live with his mom and notice a 10:00PM check in time. Not exactly a year later, Gacy is accused again of explicitly attacking a high school kid however the young didn't show up in court, so the charges were dropped. Gacy was known by numerous individuals in his locale to be a devoted volunteer and being dynamic in network governmental issues. His part as "Pogo the Clown" the comedian started in 1975 when Gacy joined a neighborhood "Happy Joker" jokester club that routinely performed at raising support occasions. On January 3, 1972, Gacy submits his first homicide of Timothy McCoy, a 16-year old kid going from Michigan to Omaha. Asserting that McCoy went into his room employing a kitchen blade, Gacy gets into an actual squabble with McCoy prior to cutting him over and over in the chest. In the wake of understanding that McCoy had absentmindedly strolled into the stay with the blade while attempting to get ready breakfast, Gacy covers the body in his creep space. Gacy conceded in the meetings following his capture that slaughtering McCoy gave him a "mind-desensitizing climax", expressing that this homicide was the point at which he "understood passing was a definitive rush" (Cahill and Ewing 349). Right around 2 years after the fact, Gacy submits his second homicide of a unidentified young person. Gacy choked the kid prior to stuffing the body in his storeroom prior to covering him (Cahill 349). In 1975, Gacy's business was developing rapidly and his hunger for youngsters developed with it. Gacy regularly baited youngsters under his work to his home, persuading them to place themselves in cuffs, and assaulting and tormenting them prior to choking them (Cahill 169-170). The vast majority of Gacy's homicides occurred somewhere in the range of 1976 and 1978, the first of this time occurring in April 1976. Huge numbers of the adolescents that were killed during this time were covered in a creep space under Gacy's home. For the rest of the killings, Gacy confessed to losing five bodies the I-55 scaffold into the Des Plaines River; notwithstanding, just four of the bodies were ever recuperated (Linedecker 152). In December 1978, Gacy meets Robert Jerome Piest, a 15-year old kid working at a drug store and extends to him an employment opportunity at Gacy's firm. Piest advises his mom regarding this and neglects to restore that night. The Piest family documents a missing individual's report and the drug specialist illuminates police that Gacy would doubtlessly be the man that Jerome addressed about a work. When addressed by the police, Gacy denied any association in Piest's vanishing. Nonetheless, the police were not persuaded, and Gacy's set of experiences of sexual maltreatment and battery incited the police to look through his home. Among the things found at Gacy's home were a 1975 secondary school class ring with the initials J.A.S., different driver's licenses, cuffs, garments that was excessively little for Gacy, and a receipt for the drug store that Piest had worked at. Throughout the span of the following not many days, examiners got numerous calls and tips about Gacy's rapes and the baffling vanishings of Gacy's representatives. The class ring was at last followed back to John A. Szyc, one of Gacy's casualties in 1977. Futhermore, after inspecting Gacy's vehicle, specialists found a little group of filaments looking like human hair, which were shipped off the labs for additional examination. That very night, search canines were utilized to recognize any hint of Piest in Gacy's vehicle, and one of the canines demonstrated that Piest had, indeed, been available in the vehicle. On December 20, 1977, under the pressure of steady police observation and examination, Gacy admits to more than 30 homicides and advises his legal counselor and companion where the bodies were covered, both in the creep space and the waterway. 26 casualties were found in the slither space and 4 in the waterway. Gacy is captured, indicted for 33 killings, and condemned to death by deadly infusion. He endeavored a craziness supplication however was denied, and was executed on May 10, 1994. There were a few scientific markers that examiners used to attach Gacy to the homicides. A portion of these include fiber examination, dental and radiology records, utilizing the disintegration cycle of the human body, and facial recreation in recognizing the people in question. Agents discovered strands that looked like human hair in both Gacy's vehicle and close to the slither space where the bodies were covered. Notwithstanding these hair tests, agents likewise discovered filaments that contained hints of Gacy's blood and semen in a similar region. Blood having a place with the casualties was found on a portion of the strands, which would later legitimately attach Gacy to the violations. The filaments in Gacy's vehicle were investigated by measurable researchers and coordinated Piest's hair tests. Moreover, the pursuit canines that discovered that Piest had been in Gacy's vehicle demonstrated this by a "demise response", which told agents that Piest's dead body had been within Gacy's vehicle. Out of Gacy's 33 known casualties, just 25 were ever convincingly distinguished. A large number of Gacy's casualties had comparative actual depictions and were along these lines hard to recognize by absolutely asking people in general. To recognize the people in question, specialists went to Betty Pat Gatliff, a pioneer in scientific science and facial remaking. Facial remaking is the way toward reproducing the facial highlights of a person by utilizing their remaining parts. Certain facial highlights, for example, facial structures, nasal structure, and by and large face shape can be valuable in distinguishing a casualty even long in the afterlife. By utilizing these highlights, and with the assistance of program, scientific examiners can make a picture of an individual's face, which is instrumental in distinguishing casualties after their bodies have rotted. Facial reproduction should be possible in a few measurements. Two-dimensional facial reproductions is utilized with skull radiographs and depend on pre-passing photos and data. Nonetheless, this isn't really ideal in light of the fact that cranial highlights are not generally noticeable or at the correct scale (Downing). To get a reasonable and more precise portrayal of the casualty's face, a craftsman and a measurable anthropologist are generally important (Downing). Three-dimensional facial remaking is finished by models or high goal, three-dimensional pictures. PC programs can make facial reproductions by controlling filtered photos of the remaining parts and use approximations to reproduce facial highlights. These will in general create results that don't look fake (Reichs and Craig 491). Once in a while, examiners will utilize a strategy called superimposition as a method for facial remaking. Shockingly, it's anything but an ordinarily utilized strategy, as it expects examiners to have some information about the personality of the remaining parts they are managing. By superimposing a photo of a person over the skeletal remaining parts, agents can check whether the facial highlights line up with the anatomical highlights, permitting them to recognize a casualty. On account of John Wayne Gacy's casualties, specialists had the option to utilize facial reproduction to recognize nine of the bodies found in the slither space. The accompanying realistic shows the facial recon>GET ANSWER