A long-standing debate in American politics is whether social program benefits (e.g., Social Security or Medicare) should be awarded to people based on age or need. Although the social policies in the United States, in combination, provide support to some groups of people based on need (welfare) and others based only on age (Medicare), some people believe that such programs should support only those eligible on the basis of need. Others maintain that Social Security and Medicare should remain policies provided to people based on age, using dignity and solidarity as the basis for their argument.
Arguing for need-based eligibility, for example, is Peterson (1996) who maintained that, because of their greater political power, we spend too much on older adults and not enough on children. Arguing for age-based eligibility are Minkler and Robertson (1991) who explained that, rather than blame the “greedy geezers, age-based benefits help all of us, e.g., relieving middle-aged children of the need to support aged parents when many are still raising their own children.
Do you agree that Social Security and Medicare should remain age-based policies, or do you think that they should be altered in some way? Why?
Piaget’s contributions to cognitive development in children are not flawless. Piaget didn’t take into account who he was talking to, children of that age like to say whatever would please someone, so if a child is asked ‘what is two add two,’ the child will answer four, but then if they are asked ‘now what is two add two’ the child will think that they have answered the question incorrectly and will give a different answer. Physical The key elements of physical development in children is the physical maturation of an individual’s body up until it reaches the adult stage. A child’s physical and measurable growth such as weight and height are taking place. Physical development concerns the development of our body’s structure and processes during life and how these developments help of hold back how we think and behave socially and emotionally. Everyone develops physically at roughly the same age but the physical changes that occur may vary from one person to another. (psychologyabout, ND.) According to theorist Mary Sheridan, at three years old, a child will be able to walk up the stairs, cut with scissors and turn while running and pulling toys, so they are able to multi task. At four years old, a child can turn sharp corners, they can run, push and pull, and they can hop and climb. Then at five years old, they can skip and dance and hop (childdevelopmentchart, 2013.) Sheridan also suggests that in terms of other physical developments a child of aged three to five years would be able to give their name and address, they can help with dressing themselves, use their fork and spoon, be able to draw a person and be able to speak roughly 1500 words. (childdevelopmentchart, 2013.) Sheridan says that children between aged three and five should be able to draw figures, so nurseries could cater for this type of physical development by having art sessions where children can draw or paint family portraits. This would also improve their fine motor skills such as fingers and hands. Another theorist Arnold Gesell identified the importance of the role of nature and heredity in children’s development. There is a psychology debate about whether our nature (biological heritage ) or our nurture (the environment we are brought up in.) Gesell believed that a timetable could be used to outline the developmental growth of every child. (ehow, ND.) Gesell indentified the typical behaviours of children through their childhood. He categorized these behaviours into different areas which he called the gradients of growth. The ones that would be mostly used at a nursery would personal hygiene, motor characteristics, school life and play and pastimes. (education, ND.)>GET ANSWER