PURPOSE: The purpose of this project is to give the student the experience of exploring and applying management principles to a clinical situation. Suggested length for the paper is approximately 5 pages of text (7 pages maximum), including title page and reference page(s). A minimum of 4 references (peer reviewed; nursing or medical) is required. The policy reviewed is not included as one of the 4 references.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: The policy paper will be a review of a current policy or procedure from a clinical site. The student will decide (with faculty guidance) the policy or procedure to be studied.
The completed paper will be SUBMITTED ELECTRONICALLY to TurnItin by the date due as listed on the course calendar. Use of APA formatting (6th Edition, sixth printing) is required. AND
A HARD COPY of the POLICY REVIEWED AND A HARD COPY OF EACH REFERENCE utilized will be turned in on a date and time as listed on the course calendar with further instructions to be announced in class.
Once a policy or procedure has been selected, a thorough review of the literature will be conducted. The title of the policy or procedure to be reviewed must be submitted to Moodle. Students may not review the same policy; policies are selected on a first come, first serve basis. The purpose of this review is to determine the current research indicating best practices for this policy. Evidence from the literature will then be compared to the current policy and recommendations for change will be made.
"ROADM TECHNOLOGY: An ideal answer for financial and dependable information move" Chapter by chapter guide PAGE NO Presentation… … .. PAGE || 1 Design… … .. PAGE || 2 WORKING OF WSS… … PAGE || 3 CHANNEL MONITOR… … . PAGE || 4 Intensifier… … . PAGE || 4 Execution PARAMETERS… … . PAGE || 4 Advantages… … … .. PAGE || 4 FUTURE SCOPE and CURRENT ISSUES… … PAGE || 4 Synopsis… … … PAGE || 5 REFERENCE… … . PAGE || 6 1. Presentation: In the present innovation arranged world, correspondence assumes a crucial job in all parts of our everyday exercises. Constant endeavors are being made by technologist to accomplish ideal information move through least data transmission. Fiber optic correspondence is an innovation utilized for transmitting data starting with one spot then onto the next by sending light waves through optical filaments. The light waves go about as an electromagnetic bearer that can be balanced to convey data.  In fiber optic correspondence Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is an innovation which blends various optical transporter signals onto a solitary optical fiber utilizing various wavelengths of laser light. WDM frameworks permit media transmission organizations to extend the limit of their system without putting in new fiber links. The limit of a fiber optic connection can be extended by redesigning multiplexers and demultiplexers at each end.  DWDM – Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing is an innovation in optical fiber correspondence that improves the data transmission limit of existing fiber systems. By utilizing this innovation numerous sign of various wavelengths can be transmitted all the while through a similar fiber.  Optical multiplexing is the fundamental capacity of WDM systems for dependable information move. Designs in WDM system like OADM (Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer) give adaptability and straightforwardness to information transmission. One of the most well known advances developed from OADM is ROADM (Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer).  Fig. 1: SONET Network OADM is a gadget utilized in WDM frameworks for including or dropping at least one wavelengths to the current sign. It's easy to introduce and requires no capacity to work and keep up however the impediment is that it can't be effectively changed without irritating the whole system. ROADM can be associated at a few areas and can be effectively adjusted as system prerequisites changed. Be that as it may, it requires extra space and capacity to work.  2. Design: Present development in DWDM frameworks has made a feasible transmission with several directs showing absolute limit in terabits every second. A straightforward synchronous optical system requires O-E-O (Optical-Electrical-Optical) interpretation which makes the system setup mind boggling, expensive just as less compelling. ROADM grants single or numerous wavelengths to be included or dropped without O-E-O interpretation and offers enormous transmission capacity for information move at the very least cost.  Since the business presentation of ROADM in the mid 2000s, they have advanced through three principle ages:  Wavelength Blocker (WB), The original ROADM were a demux-switch-mux way to deal with include/drop/go through. They were mind boggling, huge and costly. The sign quality was poor because of polarization subordinate misfortune. In the wavelength blocker innovation, a splitter and a channel plate are utilized to include/drop any number of chosen wavelengths. WB ROADM can level, constrict, include or hinder all wavelengths with low scattering and low power dispersal without recovery. They are fundamentally utilized in the whole deal. Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), The PLC ROADM enabled the specialist organizations to progressively embed/end (include/drop) or course a specific wavelength through wavelength executives. This methodology gives a diminished systems administration cost over WB-based ROADMs. Wavelength specific switches. The wavelength specific switches permit including dropping and express steering traffic through system hubs which help in effective transmission capacity usage.  Fig. 2: ROADM Architecture ROADM design comprises of three principle segments which make up a ROADM sharp edge. Wavelength specific switch, Channel screen Intensifier Fig. 3: Wavelength Selective Switch The WSS comprise of single basic info port against numerous wavelength yield ports, every wavelength contribution from the regular port can be changed to any one multi-wavelength yield ports paying little respect to all other wavelength courses. Every wavelength can be separately weakened for channel power control and usage. 2.1 Working of WSS: 1XN wavelength specific switch Fig. 4: Wavelength Selective Switch 1x N The light from the normal information fiber collimates by a microlens at point A, The accompanying focal point makes the picture of the collimated shaft on the diffraction grinding point at C, The wavelength scattered pillar falls on to the plane D where the bars are reflected with certain tilt contingent upon the micromirror setting all the thought about bars are engaged point B where edge space transformation will coordinate the bar towards the yield fiber. The WSS is like fiber Bragg grinding where numerous layers are utilized to reflect specific wavelengths. 2.2 Channel Monitor: The Channel Monitor in a ROADM lessens the yield wavelength as per the channel necessities. The wavelength specific switch just diverts the light so WSS alongside channel screen watches that all frequencies are appropriately tuned, and no specific recurrence involves the whole channel volume. The constriction is performed by utilizing MEMS-Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System or Liquid Crystal Switching rule. 2.3 Amplifier: The intensifier intensifies the waves drawing nearer towards the yield fiber. 3. Execution Parameters: ROADM permits building dynamic and adaptable system which can productively transmit information at the pace of 100Gb/s. The administration administrators must focus on subtleties like utilizing effective double polarization Quadrate Phase Shift Keying adjustment method to stay away from channel obstruction, upgrading OSNR (Optical Signal to Noise Ratio) for the equivalent BER bit blunder rate, Polarization mode scattering estimation of fiber is likewise a significant parameter. ROADM empowers include drop channels each site so channel power equalization is significant.  4. Advantages: Overwhelming Density 1 x 20 WSS switches have been contrived by part suppliers at an extremely monetary rate contrasted with the measure of information they can move. Propelled tweak plans empowered by reasonable location are prompting flexing range ROADM equipment Touchless Automated arrangement and initiation of system transmission capacity on halfway locales of the system enable the specialist organization to react to client requests rapidly and proficiently with a negligible spending plan. ROADM gives adaptable reconfigurability at middle of the road just as at endpoints of the system Expanded fiber use limit disposes of the requirement for overabundance hardware establishment to fulfill the rising client needs. Keeps away from O-E-O interpretations subsequently kills the requirement for fast exchanging of gadgets. 5. Future Scope and Current issues  : N degree ROADM can be constructed utilizing (N) (N x 1) WSS with each serving a given degree by changing access structure extra (N + 1) degree wavelength can acknowledged utilizing (N + 1)(1 x N) cross-associates yet this doesn't permit all conceivable interlink associations. Today the test is to build up a completely practical CDC-ROADM for example vapid directionless dispute less ROADM utilizing extra WSSs Such a module would permit any wavelength or blend of wavelengths to be exchanged between any interlink associations, CDC ROADM is adroitly basic, however it requires a significant level of photonic reconciliation. Fig. 4: CDC ROADM 6. Rundown: WSS is the significant segment of ROADM, and better-improved ROADMs can be created by improving modules with extra WSSs. ROADM have proficiently made 100G information transmission solid and financial by precluding the optical electronic interpretations, Today the technologist are searching for improvements in the ROADM design by streamlining the part execution and making Directionless, Colorless and Contention less ROADM conceivable to accomplish transmission up to 400G 7. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber-optic_communication https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavelength-division_multiplexing https://www.advaoptical.com/en/items/innovation/dwdm http://www.cwdm-dwdm-oadm.com/blog/a/84/A-Brief-Introduction-to-ROADM-Technology https://www.google.ca/search?q=roadm+optical+to+electrical+and+electrical+to+optical&rlz=1C1GCEV_enCA824CA824&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0aUKEwjGyK_0mIXfAhUGvVkKHVclDEMQ_AUIDigB&biw=1707&bih=839&dpr=1.13#imgrc=_ https://wireilla.com/engg/ecij/papers/3114ecij01.pdf http://www.fujitsu.com/ca/en/Images/Fujitsu-NG-ROADM.pdf http://www.tacs.eu/Analyses/White%20Papers/evolution%20to%20enhanced%20ROADM-nn115940.pdf https://www.fiberoptics4sale.com/online journals/file posts/95046534-what-is-wavelength-specific switch-wss http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-document/230902 https://www.optelian.com/wp-content/transfers/2016/10/Optelian-ROADMsNextGenNetworks-WP.pdf>GET ANSWER