Newspaper industry, and airwaves/tv/radio creates fake news because of its market structure. Show that fake news is a result of oligopoly behaviour in two different media industries.
Please answer this question in two different parts. 2200 words each.

Section 1:
Question: Newspaper Journalism produces misinformation due to its inherent market structure, where firms behave in an oligopolistic manner.

Fake news was generated from the newspaper industry because of oligopolistic competition in its market structure. Prove that there are oligopolistic characteristics in the market throughout history, which may have caused firms to create fake news in order to compete.

Section 2:
Question: Radio/television Journalism produces misinformation due to its inherent market structure, where firms behave in an oligopolistic manner.

Fake news was generated from the radio/tv industry because of oligopolistic competition in its market structure. Prove that there are oligopolistic characteristics in the market throughout history, which may have caused firms to create fake news in order to compete.
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Please use the time periods 1880’s until present to prove that fake news has been made because of oligopolistic market characteristics.
Show that fake news is a result of oligopoly behaviour.

Please find historical evidence and economic analysis and statistics to prove this.

The following information was from ‘Truth Decay’ which you can download here, which was a very useful source.

https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR2300/RR2314/RAND_RR2314.pdf

In the 1880s and 1890s newspapers created fake news in an era known as ‘yellow journalism’.

This stopped with a precipitated shift in journalistic norms and practices and the rise of the “muckrakers”—journalists who conducted deep investigations to uncover evidence of government or corporate corruption, a predecessor of today’s (usually respected) “investigative” journalism. Reporters might have been doing investigative journalism while yellow journalism was thriving, but their articles seem to have been overwhelmed by other, less-rigorous reporting. e attention muckrakers paid to collecting and exposing all the facts might have shifted the pendulum away from sensationalized news stories and back toward facts and analysis, reducing uncertainty and increasing confidence in the media and other institutions.

In the 1920’s and 1930’s there was a rise of rise of jazz journalism, where tabloid journalism created fake news.

The rise of tabloids also challenged more-established newspapers, which were forced to di erentiate themselves as “real journalism” while also fighting to keep their readers. To compete, the more-established publications shifted toward o ering a higher concentration of non- news content, such as advice columns, short stories, and other serial- ized or editorial content. (Musser,2007)

Tabloids continued to thrive in the 1930s but lost favor in the 1940s, as journalists took the responsibility of reporting the events of World War II. (Steve Vaughn, 2008.)

Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.

 

References

Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.