Newspaper industry, and airwaves/tv/radio creates fake news because of its market structure. Show that fake news is a result of oligopoly behaviour in two different media industries.
Please answer this question in two different parts. 2200 words each.
Question: Newspaper Journalism produces misinformation due to its inherent market structure, where firms behave in an oligopolistic manner.
Fake news was generated from the newspaper industry because of oligopolistic competition in its market structure. Prove that there are oligopolistic characteristics in the market throughout history, which may have caused firms to create fake news in order to compete.
Question: Radio/television Journalism produces misinformation due to its inherent market structure, where firms behave in an oligopolistic manner.
Fake news was generated from the radio/tv industry because of oligopolistic competition in its market structure. Prove that there are oligopolistic characteristics in the market throughout history, which may have caused firms to create fake news in order to compete.
Please use the time periods 1880’s until present to prove that fake news has been made because of oligopolistic market characteristics.
Show that fake news is a result of oligopoly behaviour.
Please find historical evidence and economic analysis and statistics to prove this.
The following information was from ‘Truth Decay’ which you can download here, which was a very useful source.
In the 1880s and 1890s newspapers created fake news in an era known as ‘yellow journalism’.
This stopped with a precipitated shift in journalistic norms and practices and the rise of the “muckrakers”—journalists who conducted deep investigations to uncover evidence of government or corporate corruption, a predecessor of today’s (usually respected) “investigative” journalism. Reporters might have been doing investigative journalism while yellow journalism was thriving, but their articles seem to have been overwhelmed by other, less-rigorous reporting. e attention muckrakers paid to collecting and exposing all the facts might have shifted the pendulum away from sensationalized news stories and back toward facts and analysis, reducing uncertainty and increasing confidence in the media and other institutions.
In the 1920’s and 1930’s there was a rise of rise of jazz journalism, where tabloid journalism created fake news.
The rise of tabloids also challenged more-established newspapers, which were forced to di erentiate themselves as “real journalism” while also fighting to keep their readers. To compete, the more-established publications shifted toward o ering a higher concentration of non- news content, such as advice columns, short stories, and other serial- ized or editorial content. (Musser,2007)
Tabloids continued to thrive in the 1930s but lost favor in the 1940s, as journalists took the responsibility of reporting the events of World War II. (Steve Vaughn, 2008.)
Reason: The reason for this exploration is to test the impact of Perceived Organizational Support on Job fulfillment and to decide the impact of intercession of Trust on Job Satisfaction in the two distinct segments of work Public and Private. Here Sector of Employment goes about as an arbitrator and Job Trust as the go between. Plan/strategy/approach: A poll was arranged and regulated to 182 representatives working in people in general and the private segment in various ventures like Banking, Mining, Power Generation and Information Technology. Discoveries: The exploration has built up positive connections between the three develops of apparent hierarchical help, work fulfillment and occupation trust for the general model and open segment representatives, though these relations are not critical in the event of private area workers. The intercession impact of Trust is critical at 10% for the general model sans independently in the private and open division. Research restrictions/suggestions: The respondents have differed profiles regarding age/years of experience, rank level and the businesses that they work in. These outcomes may not be generalizable to all workers in different associations in various businesses and geographic zones. Likewise, an expansive level of reactions have been gathered through the web which isn't an altogether precise and solid type of information accumulation. Viable ramifications: The exploration discoveries are relied upon to help the current associations in people in general and private area to make sense of purposes behind diminishing occupation fulfillment of the workers and devise approaches to enhance the view of authoritative help. Creativity/esteem: This paper contemplates the distinction in the connections displayed between Perceived hierarchical help, work trust and occupation fulfillment in the private and open area in the Indian setting. This is one of the primary endeavors towards concentrate the business parts on a similar premise. Catchphrases: Seen Organizational Support, Job Trust, Job Satisfaction, Public Sector, Private Sector Presentation: Employment Satisfaction is a measure of how content an individual is with his activity. Many models have been created keeping in mind the end goal to clarify circumstances and end results of occupation fulfillment, for instance, influence hypothesis, dispositional hypothesis, two factor hypothesis and the activity qualities show. For a considerable length of time specialists have been attempting to build up relationship among different parameters influencing the activity fulfillment, work responsibility, work devotion and occupation execution of the representatives in the associations. This is especially vital for associations with a specific end goal to enhance working conditions, make sense of the rousing components and accordingly increment representative profitability by making a sound workplace. Occupation Satisfaction is a marker of worker observations and emotions about their employments. It can likewise anticipate work practices like authoritative citizenship,absenteeismandturnover.Another imperative and pertinent research finding is the connection between life fulfillment and occupation fulfillment which is observed to be corresponding. It implies that a man who is happy with his activity might be very happy with his life and the other way around. Occupation fulfillment is accepted to decidedly influence the profitability of the worker which is indispensable to specialty units that are meaning to expand yields. Seen hierarchical help is typically thought to be a dynamic connection between the business and his workers. As per Rhoades and Eisenberger(2002) the partners share a corresponding relationship where higher POS is connected with earnest endeavors put in by the worker to accomplish hierarchical objectives. Research discoveries recommend that expert representatives will probably see higher authoritative help when they emphatically related to their working environment and a positive relationship was seen between work execution and POS (Heckman et al., 2009). Our exploration goes for dissecting the connection between saw hierarchical help and occupation fulfillment. Put stock in goes about as a go between in our model. Seen authoritative help is how much representatives trust that their association esteems their commitments and thinks about their prosperity. Trust is to trust the individual who you trust to do what you expect and work fulfillment portrays how content an individual is with his or her activity. This exploration endeavors to think about and build up connections between the develops for people in general and private division workers in India. There are different standard scales accessible to quantify every one of these parameters. In this investigation we have for the most part utilized the abbreviated rendition of the scales. Research foundation and Hypothesis Seen Organizational Support: The idea of hierarchical help has created enough enthusiasm for request to contemplate its effect on execution of the workers. The discernment a representative creates about his/her association esteeming his commitments and thinking about his interests and prosperity is named as Perceived Organizational Support (POS)(Eisenberger and Rhoades,2002). A meta-investigation has shown that three noteworthy classifications of desires that a representative has from his work association are related with POS. They are fairness of systems, support of the prompt unrivaled and execution related prizes and great employment conditions. Considering the businesses' desires from their representatives, they esteem commitment and dependability. Feeling driven perspective of hierarchical duty underlines that the feeling of solidarity felt by the representative and the qualities that he imparts to the association decide the execution and non-appearance levels, likelihood of leaving his place of employment (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990;Meyer and Allen, 1997; Mowday, Porter, and Steers, 1982). Social Exchange scholars express that work is a give and take relationship of commitment and reliability for substantial prizes and social advantages (e.g., Bateman and Organ, 1983; Brief and Motowidlo, 1986). The predecessors of POS and its results are clarified by the hierarchical help hypothesis which (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, and Sowa, 1986). This hypothesis accept that to decide association's availability to compensate representative endeavors and meet their socio enthusiastic requirements, worker shapes general convictions about the worry appeared and expected in future by his association towards him. POS is likewise viewed as an affirmation of the help that will be accessible to the representative in the midst of pain (cf. George, Reed, Ballard, Colin, and Fielding, 1993). Moves made by the operators of the association are illustrative of its goal and are not individual thought processes. The exemplification of the association is upheld by its good and lawful duties, culture, standards and approaches. Representatives frame discernments in light of the above pointers about the help they get from their work association (Levinson, 1965). This hypothesis additionally expresses that POS ought to build up some sort of a commitment in the representative to perform for the association and help achieve its destinations. The part acumen of representatives is accepted to rely upon the exercises that the association sees as important for effective employment execution (Porter and Lawler, 1968). Execution is required to increment with higher endeavors put in by the worker and the observation that such productive endeavors will be compensated (Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, and Weick, 1970; Katz, 1964). Occupation Trust Trust is a standout amongst the most critical essentials on which a business worker relationship is based. This relationship goes far in imparting certainty and destructing dread by making a workplace free of stress and doubt (Zeffane et.al, 2003). Trust has likewise been proposed to be a mental state as indicated by which it is estimated based on seen defenselessness or hazard because of the vulnerability included (Kramer, 1999). In our examination work we are worried about the trust inside the association i.e. the degree of trust the representatives have in the association they work for, essentially amongst workers and chiefs or directors. In this manner in an authoritative setting trust depends on the social trade hypothesis basically (Whitener et al., 1998), which discloses trust to be a result of trade of advantages between the two gatherings included. The basic idea required here is "correspondence", which builds up the way that interest in the representatives in an association as far as acknowledgment, strengthening, equity, bolster and different favors will dependably be returned and not go squander (Gouldner, 1960). Concurring the exploration done by Prusak and Cohen (2001), it is feasible for supervisors to build up a situation of trust in the association by empowering shared trust, and support. This thus builds the level of apparent confidence in the association by the representatives. It has likewise been contended that this confide in (McAllister, 1995) is the way to hierarchical trust and control. It prompts expanded level of representative support which includes basic leadership control in the hands of the subordinates which would unavoidably prompt increment in botches. Along these lines, by assigning this energy to the subordinates the association expands the hazard factor however in the meantime, since this designation needs an obligation of confide in (Yukl, 1994), gives an unmistakable sign that association has faith in its workers and in this manner the individual sees this authoritative trust and thusly contributes viably and emphatically towards the association. It is additionally obvious that every individual sees the level of trust in an unexpected way. Along these lines, it is worthless to hold basic suspicions over all work connections and consequently setting based examination is required. The trust levels likewise shift based on who is taking an interest in the relationship i.e. at what level of the association (Graham et al., 2006). Along these lines, this trust existing in an association decides to a substantial degree an association's way of life and work elements, by affecting elements like authoritative structure, work fulfillment and duty (Zaffane et. al, 2003). Thus, we have taken this as one of the develops (as a go between) in our examination of the connection between saw hierarchical help and employment fulfillment. Occupation Satisfaction Occupation fulfillment was ascribed to most prominent conceivable income with minimal measure of work done (Taylor, 1970). This disputable hypothesis empowered various different investigations to demonstrate the importance of different factors in deciding occupation fulfillment. These elements were distinguished as correspondence trepidation, impression of prompt directors and worker regard (Falcione, 1977). Likewise, work fulfillment was resolved to be impacted by the profits or rewards expected by the individual and the degree to which she could accomplish them in the activity. (Jorgensen, 1973). Representative discernments were viewed as more imperative in deciding occupation fulfillment than physical confirmations like pay (Brayfield et al., 1951). The short shape form of Brayfield and Rothe's scale was produced to gauge representative discernments about their activity and association (Algho et al., 1992). A ton of research has been focused at work fulfillment and the turnover rates in the associations or the representative's expectation to stop. (Spector et al., 1997). In such manner, work fulfillment was ended up being identified with work ID. Them two were resolved to be authoritative stays and were utilized to anticipate the turnover inside associations (De Moura et al., 2009). A point of reference to work fulfillment was recognized as employment frailty (Reisel et al., 2010) and a predecessor was observed to be part honesty and execution of additional part assignments (Nathan et al.). Occupation fulfillment has frequently been emphatically connected to preparing and advancement openings in the association. A critical positive relationship was seen between boss gave preparing fulfillment and general occupation fulfillment of representatives. Fulfillment with preparing and improvement altogether influences profession choices and is an esteemed factor among workers, therefore essentially affecting occupation fulfillment (Schmidt, 2007). Additionally, work fulfillment was theoretically settled as a middle person between saw hierarchical help and employment duty. Exactly, a positive relationship was set up between apparent hierarchical help and occupation fulfillment (Chiu et al., 2010). In a current report on work fulfillment, an aggregate of nine components gathered under four headings were considered as points of reference of employment fulfillment. The four headings included hierarchical change, authoritative help, work qualities and administrative part. It was experimentally demonstrated that decentralization, casual correspondence, bolster from director, participative hierarchical culture, self-rule and strengthening of workers and the sort of part in the association fundamentally affected the activity fulfillment of representatives (Lee et al., 2008). The part of supervisory or prompt manager bolster was resolved to be huge. According to the examination, chiefs were seen as the agents of the association by representatives and are in charge of going about as the interface amongst association and workers. Along these lines, they normally fabricate an association with representatives. Nature of this relationship was the noteworthy determinant of worker observations and employment fulfillment (Ladebo, 2008). The utilization of data frameworks in the association has been seen to positively affect worker work fulfillment. In the developing working environments of present, the capacity to work adaptably and proficiently is seen to majorly affect the innovatively propelled representatives. In this way, the establishment of a proficient Information System, which gave simple access to data was seen to expand the activity fulfillment scores altogether (Chen et al, 2008). The connection amongst POS and Job Satisfaction POS is identified with, yet unique shape the develops like occupation fulfillment. POS is resolved to affect worker responses to their employments on different measurements, including work fulfillment, work inclusion and occupation duty (Rhoades, 2002). According to the standards of correspondence, a worker would respond emphatically to great treatment from the administrator or prompt supervisor. As the quick supervisor is the immediate illustrative of the association, a reasonable treatment from him would be believed to be authoritative help and would urge workers to go past their typical honorable obligation to respond the great treatment (Rousseau, 1989). POS is characterized as the discernment which representatives have of how much the association esteems them, their commitments or thinks about them. High POS would address mental issues of workers, e.g. endorsement, regard and social personality needs. It would likewise persuade the workers by raising the desires of prizes on better than expected or above expected execution (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Percieved authoritative help has a positive association with mental prosperity which is characterized as far as occupation fulfillment and life fulfillment. This relationship is interceded by compelling duty (Meyer et al., 2002). POS is frequently seen to be emphatically related with hierarchical duty (Shore et al., 1991). Be that as it may, POS is as yet particular from hierarchical responsibility in light of the fact that while POS measures the degree to which association thinks about its representatives according to their observations, authoritative duty measures the degree to which workers consider themselves to be being dedicated to the association and in this manner fulfilled (Shore et al., 1993) Without POS, representatives might be troubled with the undertakings related with their employments and might be disappointed. POS is influenced by the different parts of an association's treatment of its representatives (Tansky et al., 2001). Hierarchical help is estimated as far as redone preparing openings and choices of adaptable working hours. Profession fulfillment goes about as an intervening variable for connection between saw authoritative help and worker's expectations to proceed in the association (Armstrong et al., 2009). Preparing and coaching before extraordinary assignments has been believed to be a solid pointer of hierarchical help. These activities give a suspicion that all is well and good to representatives and console them and association will enable them to address difficulties. In this manner, they distinguish more with the activity and do it all the more productively (Cuplan, 2002). Numerous senior ladies directors have whined of the administration's inability to perceive their ability and absence of help and headway openings inside the association. Ladies shape just a small part of guys in senior positions (Wellington et al., 2003). Such observations regularly prompt leaving the place of employment, which is a noteworthy marker of lessened occupation fulfillment at negative view of association equity (Jawahar et al., 2008). The two POS and JS are seen to have critical association with association duty, which demonstrates the nearness of a relationship between's these factors. Hierarchical recognizable proof apparently has a solid constructive outcome on result factors like occupation fulfillment (Abrams et al., 2001). Authoritative help however demonstrates how well association deals with the OID for their workers. POS hypothesis recommends that if association takes great care of representatives, they will build up a more grounded connection to the association (Rhoades et al., 2001), consequently being more fulfilled and conferred (Rhoades et al., 2002). >GET ANSWER