Many different marketers, from cat-food manufacturers to insurance firms, are evoking positive memories of the past to capture the imagination of consumers through nostalgia marketing. Whether they’re bringing back old jingles, slogans, images, logos, characters, or brands, marketers want to jolt consumers’ memories. Feeling pressured by today’s fast-paced, high-tech world, many consumers are receptive to familiar ads and products they associate with their younger days and bygone times they remember fondly.
Meow Mix cat food, owned by Del Monte Foods, recently resumed the use of its decades-old advertising jingle, after a 16-year hiatus. The jingle is a series of “meows” set to a simple tune that plays as viewers watch cats “mouth” the words during the commercials. “The Meow Mix Jingle brings back a sense of nostalgia and is a classic advertising spot that many people can even recite by memory,” explained the brand’s marketing director. The jingle is so memorable that 50 percent of consumers surveyed before the new ads aired said they had heard the jingle during the previous 18 months, even though it had not been used for more than a decade.
Comic-strip characters from the 1960s are helping MetLife appeal to consumers who smile when they see Charlie Brown, Snoopy, and other Peanuts characters in the insurance company’s ads and social media posts. Before debuting a new commercial during the Super Bowl, MetLife used its Facebook page to post “comments” by Peanuts characters. After the game, MetLife posted additional character scenes online to keep the buzz going. Why use nostalgia for Snoopy to market life insurance? “It definitely takes people back, and we wanted to start a dialogue,” says a company executive.
Volkswagen, Audi, and other car companies frequently play on nostalgia for old rock songs to reach target audiences. One Volkswagen commercial recently featured a 1960s James Brown hit, while an Audi ad featured a 1980s song by Echo and the Bunnymen. H&M has marketed its men’s clothing with hit songs from the past such as the Animals’ Don’t Let Me Be Misunderstood. Nostalgia for childhood snacks has helped Cadbury market its Wispa chocolate bar and Nestlé market its Kit Kat bars.
The long-running TV program Mad Men, which focused on characters rising in the advertising industry of the 1950s and 1960s, provided numerous opportunities for advertisers to evoke nostalgia for the period. Unilever created retro-look commercials to air in Europe during the program’s fourth season. During the U.K. premiere of Mad Men’s fifth season, Sky Atlantic ran well-known British TV commercials from the 1960s for Fairy Liquid, Tetley Tea, and other brands, heightening viewer anticipation for a nostalgic look back at ads they hadn’t seen for many years.
When the U.S. magazine Newsweek put Mad Men on its cover, it suggested that advertisers submit ads with a 1965 look. That issue included a Spam ad with flower-power colors and fonts; a Dunkin’ Donuts ad with 1960s images of the donut shop; a Hush Puppies shoe ad based on the company’s actual 1960s ads; a new Mercedes-Benz sports car advertised in 1960s style; and a reprint of a 1960s Johnnie Walker Red liquor ad. Media coverage of the issue and its special ads increased sales and boosted traffic to websites where the ads were posted, adding a 21st-century angle to the 20th-century nostalgic appeal.
1. Using the concepts in this chapter, explain why Meow Mix would return to its old advertising jingle 16 years after the company stopped using it.
2. What role do episodic and semantic memory play in the use of nostalgia marketing?
3. How is MetLife’s use of Peanuts comic-strip characters in its ads likely to affect consumers’ schemas? Would you have these characters posting on Facebook as part of the campaign? Why or why not?
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.