Do nurses on inpatient nursing units (P) who work with transformational leaders (I) versus other styles of leadership, bureaucratic or laissez-faire (C) have higher nurse engagement, retention, and team member satisfaction scores (O) over the course of one year (T)?
The degrees of sleep are characterised by way of regular styles of electroencephalogram (EEG), electro-myogram (EMG) and electro oculogram (EOG) interest Wakefulness with open eyes is characterized through an EEG with dominant low amplitude, high frequency beta activity of 16–25 Hz. Muscle tone is typically high with excessive to slight EMG pastime. degree 1 Sleep is commonly initiated with the aid of a transition from wakefulness to a state of drowsiness with closed eyes and a shift from EEG beta activity to alpha hobby of eight–12 Hz passing to level 1 NREM sleep with a mixed frequency EEG-sample with low amplitude theta waves of 3–7 Hz observed with the aid of slow rolling eye actions. Involuntary muscle clonus happens frequently, ensuing in jerky motion of the whole frame (hypnic jerks) and EMG hobby is slight-to-low. This level lasts normally best 5–10 min, for the duration of which period minor auditory stimuli will reason arousal. degree 2 stage 2 is characterized through brief bursts of excessive frequency hobby (12–15 Hz – sleep spindles) and ok-complexes (large amplitude biphasic waves). physical moves continue and the EMG pastime is low-to-slight. This level is normally quick (10–20 min) in the first 1–2 cycles however predominates in later cycles. it's far the most abundant sleep level in adults accounting for as much as 50% of TST. levels three and 4 Deep NREM sleep ranges three and 4, sometimes mixed as gradual wave sleep (SWS) are characterised by way of excessive amplitude low frequency delta waves (> 75µV and zero.five–2 Hz) with degree 3 having among 20–50% and degree four more than 50% delta activity. EMG pastime is low and eye actions are rare. Arousal through auditory stimuli from this level of sleep is difficult and, if awoke, the man or woman is regularly disorientated and slow to react. return to sleep is straightforward and quick arousals (< 30 sec) are not often remembered. REM sleep NREM sleep is accompanied with the aid of REM sleep, the share growing with each cycle. REM sleep is characterized by means of a fast mixed frequency low voltage EEG with noticed-teeth waves and speedy eye moves at the EOG. at some point of the tonic levels of REM sleep, there's marked reduction of muscle tone and EMGactivity in skeletal muscle groups. The tonic phases of REM sleep are interrupted by using brief episodes of phasic REM sleep with extended EMG interest and limb twitches. The atonia of REM sleep affects all skeletal muscle tissues, besides the diaphragm and the higher airway muscle tissue, and is associated with hyperpolarisation of the α-motor neurones. The motive of this could be to prevent the appearing out of goals. approximately 10% of the population have skilled sleep paralysis (i.e. wakening from sleep and finding that the atonia has continued into wakefulness). it is able to be horrifying however is totally harmless. natural wakening usually happens from REM sleep. subjects woken from REM sleep are much more likely to keep in mind dream content than those awoke from NREM sleep. NREM d>GET ANSWER