DNA is made of subunits called nucleotides that consist of which of the following?
A. One base
B. Two hydrogen atoms
C. One sugar molecule
D. One phosphate molecule
E. One essential amino acid
2. True or false? Changes in our diet are accompanied by changes in the composition of our gut microbes, suggesting that our microbial populations are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors.
3. Hypercellular obesity is best described as:
A. Obesity due to an increase in both the size and number of fat cells
B. Obesity due to environmental factors
C. Obesity due to an increase in the size of fat cells
D. Obesity due to an above-average number of fat cells
4. Select each of the following characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
A. Occurs in people younger than 30 and often develops suddenly
B. Usually is diagnosed in children and young adults
C. Although blood glucose levels are high, the lack of insulin prevents glucose from entering cells to be burned for energy
D. Develops in women who are pregnant and have never had diabetes before
E. Usually develops in overweight individuals age 45 or older
F. Glucose has trouble entering body cells because either the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or cells in the body become resistant to the action of insulin
G. Symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, rapid weight loss and blurred vision
5. Select each of the correct statements regarding insulin.
A. For glucose to enter into most types of cells, insulin must be present
B. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas
C. Insulin production is stimulated by the intake of fat and amino acids
D. Lack of insulin production as a result of food intake can lead to hyperglycemia
E. Individuals are born with as much insulin as they will need throughout their life
6. Which of the following best describes how the build environment positively impacts (prevents) overweight and obesity rates?
A. Having a variety of fast-food eating options in the workplace
B. Having convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods
C. Having only one choice of supermarket from which to shop, and having to rely on public transportation to get there
D. Having access to safe green spaces and playgrounds
7. Put these steps for how cancer cells multiply and spread in the correct order sequence.
1. Cells multiply and form metastases
2. Tumor in epithelium
3. Cells travel through bloodstream and may eventually adhere to the capillary wall in the liver or other organs
4. Cells break through base of epithelium to invade capillary
A. 1, 3, 4, 2
B. 1, 2, 3, 4
C. 2, 4, 3, 1
8. True or false? Research results indicate that yo-yo dieting (weight cycling) is harmful to a person’s health.
9. True or false? Our food choices are more likely to affect our risk for developing chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, or cancer, than to affect our susceptibility to acute diseases such as getting a fever or the flu.
10. True or false? An individual’s risk for developing atherosclerosis can be predicted by assessing total cholesterol more so than assessing either blood low-density lipoproteins or high-density lipoproteins in the blood.
11. Select each of the following recommendations to promote bone health and slow the development of osteoporosis.
A. Don’t smoke.
B. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation.
C. Exercise with weight-bearing and resistance training at least two days per week.
D. Maintain adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D.
12. Our immediate surroundings influence our behaviors and may contribute to weight issues. This is an example of:
A. Emotional eating
B. Behavior factors as they relate to obesity
C. The build environment
D. Social factors as they relate to obesity
13. The slow, progressive hardening and narrowing of arteries by deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other substances is known as:
14. Which of the following statements is true with regards to sociocultural influences on obesity?
A. Obesity is more prevalent in men than in women
B. Women who are unemployed have a lower incidence of obesity
C. People residing in the Southern United States have a higher incidence of obesity
D. Fatness is increasing in the United States, and so is idealized weight
15. According to CDC data on obesity trends, which of the following states had the lowest rate of obesity in the year 2010?
16.True or false? Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
17. True or false? Smoking, overeating, high cholesterol levels, uncontrolled blood pressure, infections, and viruses can all lead to heart disease.
18. True or false? Healthy weight management means focusing on metabolic fitness, such as having healthy levels of blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure, rather than on achieving a specific weight.
19. Which of the following is considered the major contributor to osteoporosis?
A. Smoking and using alcohol later in life
B. Lack of calcium and vitamin D
C. Lack of sunlight during early stages of life
D. Bone loss with age
20. These types of fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk of abnormal heartbeats, decrease triglyceride levels, slow the rate of atherosclerosis, and slightly lower blood pressure.
A. Cis-fatty acids
B. Omega-8 fatty acids
C. Trans fatty acids
D. Omega-3 fatty acids
21. What is the major energy source in human milk?
22. During the second and third trimesters, the suggested weight gain for a pregnant woman who is carrying one fetus and whose pre-pregnancy weight was normal is _____ per week.
A. 4 pounds
B. 3 pounds
C. Slightly less than 1 pound
D. 2 pounds
23. Which is an important component of nutrition assessment during the preconception period?
A. Evaluation of a woman’s vitamin status
B. Measurement of weight
C. Obtaining information about use of substances such as alcohol and tobacco
D. All of these are correct.
24. The daily recommended level for folic acid supplementation during pregnancy is _____ micrograms.
C. 400- 900
25. The type of diabetes that develops as a result of pregnancy, and usually goes away once the pregnancy is over is called:
A. Acute diabetes
B. Type I diabetes
C. Chronic diabetes
D. Gestational diabetes
26.An adequately fed newborn will breastfeed about ___ times per day.
A. 8 to 12
B. 10 to 15
C. 6 to 15
D. 4 to 10
27. If a pregnant woman needs to increase the amount of vitamin A in her body, the best source of vitamin A would be foods such as:
A. Isoflavones and fish
B. Fruits and lean meats
C. Meat and dairy products
D. Those that contain beta-carotene.
28. This type of formula is lactose-free, iron-fortified, and the main carbohydrate sources are corn syrup and sucrose.
A. Cow’s milk
B. Standard infant formula
C. Elemental (pre-digested) formula
D. Soy-based formula
29. True or false? By his or her first birthday, an infant will have tripled his or her birth weight and increased his or her length by about 50 percent.
30. To ensure adequate milk production and avoid nutrition deficiencies during lactation, a nursing mother should consume at least ____ kilocalories per day.
31. True or false? One nutrient known to prevent birth defects is folic acid.
32. Which of the following substances crosses the placenta and enters into the fetus?
33. Protein needs are higher during _____ than at any other time in the life cycle.
C. Late childhood
D. Young adulthood
34. What is the main advantage for introducing one new food at a time to an infant?
A. The infant’s digestive system is better able to digest single foods than combinations
B. The infant can develop a preference for one food before moving on
C. It is more convenient for the caregiver
D. It will be easier to identify foods that cause allergic reactions
35. Which baby has the greatest risk for a deficiency of vitamin D?
A. Dark-skinned infant living in Alaska
B. Infant exposed to sun 15 minutes a day
C. All infants have the same risk
D. Light-skinned breastfed infant living in California
36. Which combination of nutrients are the most difficult to consume in sufficient amounts by healthy pregnant women who eat well-balanced diets?
A. Calcium, zinc
B. Vitamin C, vitamin E
C. Iron, folate
D. Sodium, fluoride
37. What is the most common reason for tooth decay in an infant?
A. Overuse of commercially prepared baby desserts
B. Putting the baby to bed with a bottle
C. Failure to brush an infant’s teeth twice a day
D. Living in a community with low fluoride content in the water supply
38. A pituitary hormone that stimulates the release of milk from the breast is:
D. Let-down reflex
39. Cow’s milk should be avoided during infancy because it:
A. Is low in calcium
B. Contains too much iron
C. Is too high in indigestible protein
D. May lead to overhydration
40. Which of the following foods is not a common food allergen for infants?
A. Cow’s milk
D. Egg whites
41. True or false? An iron deficiency can cause profound fatigue, and possibly death.
42. Which of the following causes is not considered a political disruption to food distribution?
43. Select each of the following that is true of a vegetarian child’s diet compared to a non-vegetarian child’s diet.
A vegetarian child’s diet is generally higher in saturated fat and total fat.
B. Calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D need to be emphasized in a vegetarian child’s diet.
C. A vegetarian child’s diet is generally higher in fruit.
D. A vegetarian child’s diet is generally lower in fiber.
44. Which of the following signs is not commonly associated with kwashiorkor?
B. Swollen face
C. Discoloration of the hair
45. True or false? Secondary behavior in children, such as long periods of television watching, is thought to be unrelated to the development of dietary eating habits of children.
46. True or false? Studies show that a child who is obese between the ages of 10 and 13 has an 80 percent chance of becoming an obese adult.
47. Select each of the following that are physical consequences of obesity during childhood.
A. Breathing problems
B. Increased risk of heart disease
C. Trouble sleeping
E. High blood pressure
48. True or false? The dietary guidelines for kids, MyPlate Kid’s Place recommends the same balance of food groups as is recommended for adults.
49. Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) program eligibility is based on:
A. Nutritional risk
B. Geographic location
C. Homelessness and low income
50. Failure to achieve nutrient requirements, which can impair physical and mental health, is called:
D. Food insecurity
51. Hungry people are those who:
A. Have an empty stomach before meals
B. Choose to fast for one meal or more per day
C. People who have limited availability of food
D. Are unable to satisfy basic nutrition needs
52. For adolescents, dietary components such as dairy products, high glycemic-index foods, fat intake, and fatty acid composition have been investigated as contributors to which of the following nutrition-related concerns?
A. Food allergies
B. Eating disorders
D. Adolescent obesity
53 The most important underlying reason for chronic hunger is:
B. Political corruption
54. True or false? Generally, a person’s nutrition needs increase as we age.
55. Which of the following factors is least likely to contribute to food insecurity in an older adult?
A. Medical bills
B. Lack of available food programs
C. Limited income
D. Physical limitations
56. What mineral deficiency is the largest cause of preventable brain damage and impaired psychomotor development in the developing world?
57. True or false? We tend to require less energy as we age, mainly because of reduced physical activity and loss of lean body mass.
58. A survey that measures the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and hunger is:
A. The WIC survey
B. Food Security Supplement survey
C. WHO research
D. The CDC survey
59. True or false? Environmental degradation can lead to global climate changes, which affect food production.
60. True or false? Poor posture can negatively affect lung and cardiovascular function, mobility, and balance.