You were recently hired as an Occupational Safety and Health consultant for Gemstone Fabricators, which is a medium sized manufacturing facility that makes stainless steel counters, containers, and carts for the food prep and restaurant industries. Several years ago, Gemstone decided it wanted to become an OSHA VPP site. It also wants to send the application to OSHA in the upcoming year. Further, there is a keen interest to align with the ANSI/AIHA Z10 standard. In going through the application submission materials, you noticed something that threw up a red flag, however. Although there was an accountability requirement specified in front-line workers’ performance evaluation documentation for safety performance, there was no such requirement in the performance evaluation documentation for supervisors, managers, or executives. Your discussions with employees also suggest that, although the employer wants the front-line workers to be heavily involved in the safety effort, they are not always sure exactly what they are supposed to be doing to help move the company’s safety programs forward. Another issue that concerns you is that the effort to implement a safety and health management systems approach appears to be somewhat piecemeal. You are finding it difficult to identify a clear Plan-Do-Check-Act approach to continuous improvement. Please compose a two-page document for your client to include your evaluation of these deficiencies along with an explanation of the significance of these problems in relation to the safety and health management systems approach. Your goal is to help the employer understand why these issues need to be attended to prior to submitting your application.
Sexual Difference Representation Clarify how and why the scrutinize of sexual contrast converged with a (postmodern) investigate of portrayal in the later 1970s and mid 1980s. Consider why photography had a critical part and the centrality of picture content relationship in this kind of training. As Craig Owens states in his paper 'The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism' (Owens, 1983), the 80s saw a meeting up of the (primarily) women's activist and strange hypothesis studies of sexual distinction and the disintegration of perspectivalist and univocal speculations of vision and portrayal. As this paper should attest, both of these positions can be believed to be traceable back to a solitary ontological and stylish crack: the breakdown in what Lyotard was to term the fabulous or "meta account" (Lyotard, 1984: xxiv) and the resulting ascend in ideas, for example, polyvocity (Deleuze and Guattari, 2004), heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 2000) ecriture female (Cixous, 1980) and differance (Derrida, 1997). This paper will likewise attest, through of crafted by Roland Barthes particularly, that photography had a noteworthy essentialness in representing the sort of aesthetico-ontological concerns and systems of postmodernity and poststructuralism; mostly through such thoughts as the punctum (Barthes, 2000); "the harsh signifying" natural inside still visual pictures (Barthes, 1983) and the play of significance amongst picture and etymological sign. This paper speaks to then an endeavor to not just comprehend photography's place inside basic hypothesis throughout the most recent two decades or something like that yet how this gives a mirror to the more extensive developments of philosophical idea. The scrutinize of sexual contrast can be believed to radiate from a wide assortment of creators (Foucault, Derrida, Kristeva, Wittig and so forth) notwithstanding, inside the commands of this paper, I should jump at the chance to take a gander at two principle scholars that have extraordinary significance: Luce Irigaray and Helene Cixous, both of whom have been believed to challenge the phallic authority and its part in standardizing portrayal. As Elizabeth Grosz (1994) calls attention to, one of the central scrutinizes intrinsic inside the second wave women's activist development of the 80s was its conflict that the philosophical and social subject had dependably been idea of gendered, as Grosz states: The riddle that Woman has postured for men is a conundrum simply because the male subject interpreted itself as the subject second to none. The way (he fantasizes) that Woman contrasts from him makes her containable inside his creative energy (decreased to his size) yet in addition delivers her as a riddle for him to ace and translate… The development of the male all inclusive subject, declared numerous women's activist scholars, came about in the standardization of phallocentricism as well as a privileging of its numerous dependants (reason, univocity, vision et cetera). By setting Woman as the side effect of man through such ideas as (among others) the maiming complex and the psycho-sexual other, a phallocentric administration stifled a significant number of the talks and points of view related with the female. Scholars, for example, Luce Irigaray and Helene Cixous endeavored to challenge this situation by attesting the unmistakable quality of different talks and stories that kept away from or in some cases even tested, the predominance of the male perspective. In 'The Laugh of the Medusa' (1980) for example, Cixous proposes that ladies' composition and aesthetic imagination (trains, for example, photography for example) ought to perceive the estimation of numerous readings, intertextuality and undefined wonderful articulation, for her the idea of sexual contrast was inseparably fixing to printed and visual portrayal and both were overwhelmed by a solitary, male-focused, vision, as Cixous points of interest: About the whole history of composing is frustrated with the historical backdrop of reason, of which it is without a moment's delay the impact, the help, and one of the special justifications. It has been unified with the phallocentric custom. It is surely that same self-appreciating, self-animating, self complimentary phallocentricism. This same subject is proceeded in the exposition 'This Sex Which isn't One' (1985) by Luce Irigaray where the case of the female private parts is refered to as existing as an escalated parallel, each part depending and drawing incitement from alternate, therefore difficult the unity and peculiarity of the phallus. Irigaray likewise makes the point that, for female sexuality, touch is more important that vision, the primary recommendation that there perhaps some traverse between the studies of sexual distinction and portrayal. As Owens (1983) recommends, postmodernity and the investigate of portrayal additionally meant to challenge the acknowledged (male overwhelmed) field of vision by, right off the bat, uncovering the connections that exist amongst portrayal and phallocentricism and afterward by attesting the estimation of multi-points of view, numerous readings and different methods of survey. The postmodern picture, as Jameson (1991) states, is one that has lost its originary association with a genuine and exists rather in a circuit of self referencing pictures whereby "The world… quickly loses its profundity and undermines to wind up a reflexive skin, a stereoscopic hallucination, a surge of filmic pictures without thickness." The postmodern picture omits ideas, for example, realness and unmistakable basic perusing since it has lost what Benjamin (2008) depicted as the emanation of unique authorial expectation. Proportionate with ideas, for example, the demise of writer (Barthes, 1988) the postmodern basic position affirms the legitimacy of various readings and the innate intertextual nature of picture and content, as Owens (1983) states: It is absolutely at the authoritative boondocks between what can be spoken to and what can can't that the postmodernist activity is being organized not keeping in mind the end goal to rise above portrayal, but rather to uncover the arrangement of energy that approves certain portrayals while blocking, forbidding or refuting others. Among those restricted from Western portrayal, whose portrayals are denied authenticity, are ladies. The evaluate of sexual distinction, at that point, and the investigate of portrayal are inseparably connected, being as they are the two endeavors at testing conventional pioneer and phallocentric methods of reasoning. Each can be seen as a methodology that looks to beat not just particular territories (sexual orientation disparity, solid methods of portrayal and so on) yet the administration that gives their ground. Every endeavor to do this through a progression of basic re-framings and hypothetical positions that reveal the inalienable irregularities and interior gaps in the prevailing talk. Roland Barthes' work Camera Lucida (2000) is a perfect case of how such thoughts can be converted into abstract and photographic hypothesis. In his thought of the punctum, for example, Barthes points of interest how time, opinion and individual intrigue can adjust our gathering of a photo a long ways past the purposes of either the picture taker or the photographic model. The punctum, or as Barthes points of interest "an incomplete question" (Barthes, 2000: 43) is what exists outside of the standardized perspective of what is representable in a photo, it omits coordinate visual acknowledgment and changes with every watcher and survey; Barthes portrays his experience of a photo by William Klein from 1954 of neediness stricken youngsters in New York's Little Italy for example, in spite of the plainly socio-political message of the photo (a grown-up hand holding a firearm to a grinning kid's head) what could be viewed as the conventional authentic, sound importance, Barthes can not help but rather "determinedly observe one tyke's terrible teeth" (Barthes, 2000: 45). In his thought of the "third importance", additionally from his article of a similar name, Barthes focuses to the unexpected and now and again entertaining coincidental components of a photo or a still picture of a film, what he calls the inhumane significance, discussing a still from Romm's Ordinary Fascism, he says: I can without much of a stretch read (in this still) an undeniable significance, that of despotism (style and symbolics of energy, the dramatic chase), yet I can likewise read a harsh importance: the (once more) camouflaged fair preposterousness of the youthful quiver-carrier, the obesity of his hands and mouth… Goering's thick nails, his trashy ring… For Barthes at that point, what was not expected to be spoken to – the inborn phallic flimsiness of the Nazi party – can be perceived in photography, not in the components that shape the focal point of the photo (the 'studium') yet those at the fringe that omit the reasonable and considered look. As Shawcross (1997) subtle elements, Barthes' thoughts here mirror the want to challenge the sorts of talks we have taken a gander at above, it focuses on the significance of numerous readings when managing photographic pictures and furthermore endeavors to challenge conventional (Western phallocentric) ideas of single point viewpoint. In permitting such various readings, states Barthes, the photos brings into question the connection amongst picture and content and, all the more properly, uncovering the play that exists between the two. In a procedure that Barthes calls "jetty" (Barthes, 1977: 38) content binds the multi-faceted significance of a picture, smothering the characteristic polyvocal nature of a photo and re-setting up the sane look for a remarkable understanding. In the arrangement of photos by Gillian Wearing, for instance, where normal individuals from general society were shot holding up printed messages, for example, "I'm Desperate" and "Help", the content is thought to be the hidden truth behind the photographic picture, featuring the degree that literary and phonetic signifiers have verifiably ruled visual ones. Women's activist picture takers have frequently played with the natural slippage of significance inside the photographic picture; crafted by Cindy Sherman, for example, epitomizes a considerable lot of the issues we have been talking about>GET ANSWER