a) What is the age of the oldest oceanic crust near Rio De Janeiro, Brazil (along the east coast of
South America)? m.y. On your page-size map, place a dot labeled A showing the
approximate location of Rio De Janeiro.
b) What are the approximate latitude and longitude (to the nearest degree, and remember that latitudes
are always °N or °S, and longitudes are °E or °W) of the Fiji Islands in the central Pacific Ocean?
____ (latitude) and ___ (longitude). On your page-size map, place a dot
labeled B showing the approximate location of Fiji.
c) What is the youngest crust in the Labrador Sea? _ m.y. Please put a dot labeled C
showing the location of the youngest crust in the Labrador Sea.
Is the Labrador Sea still growing? Yes or No? ___
d) On your page-size map, please place dot D somewhere you could walk on a spreading center.
e) On your page-size map, please place dot E on the fastest spreading center.
f) The Challenger Deep in the Marianas Trench is the deepest point in the world ocean (it is labelled
on the World Map – near the Philippines)? How deep is it? _(m or ft)
Place a dot labeled F (on your page-size map) showing the approximate location of Challenger Deep.
What process caused the formation of the Mariana Trench? ______
- (3 pts) Please indicate the locations of spreading centers and trenches on the page-size copy of the
world map. Use solid lines (or blue lines) for trenches and dashed lines (or red lines) for spreading
These features delineate the major tectonic plates: please label the ten major plates on Earth
(African, Antarctic, Cocos, Eurasian, Indo-Australian, Nazca, North American, Pacific, Philippine and
South American) — just write the name of each plate on your page-size map.
- (2 pts) Determine how fast the Southern Ocean is spreading between Australia and Antarctica:
— Remember that cm = centimeters, km = kilometers, my = millions of years, yr = years
— Remember that a RATE (speed) is equal to the DISTANCE divided by the TIME
— To convert km/my to cm/yr, just divide by 10
Step #1: First, measure the distance between Australia and Antarctica in cm on your large World Map
(not the piece of paper!):
Distance on map in cm = _
Step #2: Convert the map distance to the real distance by multiplying by the map scale (358km/cm)
Distance on Earth in kilometers (km) = _
Step #3: The age of the oldest crust near Australia and Antarctica where you measured. This is the age
of the oldest ocean floor on the line between the two points.
Time = Age of the oldest crust in millions of years = __
Step #4: Calculate the rate of opening (Rate = Distance / Time) in both km/my and cm/year.
(Remember that 1 km/my = 10 x cm/yr or 1 cm/yr = 0.1 x km/my)
powerful, epistemological and methodological. Other than this it is additionally reality that there is no single rendition of logical authenticity which is being acknowledged by all the logical pragmatists. The convention of logical authenticity expresses that " the world concentrated by science exists and has the properties it does, autonomously of our convictions, discernments, and speculating; that the point of science is to portray and clarify that world, including those numerous parts of it that are not straightforwardly recognizable; that, different things being equivalent, logical hypotheses are to be translated actually; that to acknowledge a hypothesis is to accept that what it says about the world is valid, and that by consistently supplanting current logical hypotheses with better ones. Science gains target ground and its speculations draw nearer to reality". Authenticity has two ways of thinking, initial one is called Extreme authenticity, spoken to by William, a French thinker; as per him "universals exist freely of both the human personality and specific things". The subsequent one is moderate authenticity and as indicated by which "universals exist just in the brain of God, as examples by which He makes specific things". The principle defender of this view was St. Thomas Aquinas and John of Salisbury. As per epistemological perspective on authenticity, things exist in this universe, autonomous of our comprehension or discernment. This point is absolutely inverse to the hypothesis of vision, which expresses that "reality exists just in the brain". By having a short clarification of authenticity, instrumentalism will be talked about, which is the contrary perspective on authenticity and the majority of time called Antirealism. Antirealism is a tenet that rejects authenticity, and incorporates instrumentalism, traditionalism, consistent positivism, intelligent experimentation and valuable induction. Instrumentalism Instrumentalism is treated as a regulation that states "speculations are only instruments, devices for the forecast and advantageous synopsis of information" [Book]. At the end of the day it very well may be characterized as "ideas and speculations are just valuable instruments whose value is estimated not by whether the ideas and hypotheses are valid or false, yet by how successful they are in clarifying and anticipating marvels". The fact is that so as to make expectations from hypotheses, rationale is required, so it very well may be difficult to state speculations have no reality esteems. In perspective on this instrumentalists concede that hypotheses have truth esteems, yet don't acknowledge this contention that speculations ought to be treated as precisely evident. In perspective on this T.S. Kuhn said that "Speculations may have truth esteems yet their reality of misrepresentation is superfluous to our comprehension of science". [Book] At the end of the day instrumentalism assesses the hugeness of a hypothesis as for experimental proof and didn't require the comprehension of the real marvels. For instance Newton gravity model is reasonable and working fine, yet it has no hypothetical establishment [Answer.com] The another part of instrumentalism is that it relates near sober mindedness and this perspective restricts the logical authenticity in light of the fact that as indicated by this, speculations are pretty much valid in nature. Besides, instrumentalism disproves that speculations can be assessed based on truth. Hypotheses>GET ANSWER