Mary is the manager of Alpha company in grocery industry. The major role of Alpha company is working a grocery distributor though the company also produces some products. There are 4 products A, B, C and D caused a lot of troubles for Mary in the past several years since the inventory and sales records were not available. From 2018 with the investment of IT and supply chain infrastructure, Mary can continuous monitor the sales and inventory information of these 4 products. It was the end of 2018. Mary had collected all 2018 weekly sales data and order history for these 4 products shown in the attached spreadsheet. This file also includes the historical order information for every week’s order in 2018. Mary wanted to use scientific ways to forecast demand and manage inventory for these 4 products. She decided to assign a project to Jason who has worked in the company several years and just got his MBA degree last year. Below are the goals of this project:
- Mary hoped Jason can determine which forecast methods will be appropriate for each of these 4 products. Moreover, Jason should provide the demand forecast of the first 4 weeks of 2019 for each of these 4 products so Mary can test Jason’s method in the first month of 2019. (30 points)
- After building a scientific way for demand forecasting, Mary hoped Jason can propose the optimal inventory/ordering policies for these 4 products for the first week of 2019. The sale price/unit for each product is listed below:
Product A Product B Product C Product D
$230 $50 $5 $3
Jason decided to use ABC rule to classify these 4 products. ‘A’ category product(s) will have the target service level 95%. ‘B’ product(s) will have the target service level 90% and ‘C’ products(s) will have the target service level 85%. After setting the appropriate service level, Jason will use the service level information to calculate the safety stock level for each product. How should Jason classify the ABC products? After classifying these 4 products, Jason wanted to use the ROP model for inventory/ordering management. He believed he would get an accurate demand forecasting for the first week of 2019. But based on the historical data, he found the lead time of orders has variation for all these 4 products. Which ROP model should Jason implement? What are the reorder points for each of these 4 products for the first week of 2019? (35 points)
- Product E is a new product and manufactured by Alpha company itself. This product was introduced to the market on July 2018 and the feedback of the market was very positive. Mary had provided the 2018 historical sale data of product E in the attached file. She wanted Jason to determine the optimal production plan for the first 4 weeks of 2019 for product E. Some information is given here:
2018 last week’s output =2,800
Beginning inventory = 0
Inventory holding cost = $40 per unit per week
Hiring employees = $40 per unit
Terminating employee = $80 per unit
Subcontracting cost =$60 per unit
Unit cost on regular time = $30 per unit
Overtime cost = $15 extra per unit
Jason’s job is to develop an aggregate plan. The three initial options he wants to evaluate are:
a. Plan A: a chase strategy that hires and fires personnel as necessary to meet the forecast.
b. Plan B: a level strategy.
c. Plan C: a level strategy that produces 2,800 units per week and meets the forecasted demand with inventory and subcontracting.
Which strategy Jason should to choose to get the lowest expected cost? (35 points)
Populace development can be characterized as an expansion or lessening in the populace size of living species including individuals. Human populaces are likewise subject to common procedure of birth and passing. There has been a quick increment on the planet s human populace in the course of the most recent couple of decades (UNFPA, 2011). Except if critical advances are taken to control populace, significant issues can emerge like condition harm and constrained accessibility of nourishment assets. Consistent populace development can be issue and in this manner it is essential to see how we can oversee populace development to support all. Individuals have attempted to make nourishment assets accessible for all the populace from multiple points of view. Beginning from the mechanical insurgency, propels in current prescription, and green horticulture upset have all made us independent up until this point. Anyway such innovation improvement can't go always and subsequently except if we oversee populace daily may come when all assets will be done. At present there are two way of thinking for the speculations on populace development. The first is the negative view created by Reverend Robert Malthus, a British researcher who accepted that the assets accessible won't be adequate for people if human populace isn't controlled. The other hypothesis is the hopeful view created by Julian Simon who accepted that people can deal with the issue of populace as a result of their insight and aptitudes. In this manner this paper will talk about these two speculations for populace development and their impact on the assets and condition of the earth. II. Components influencing populace development The populace development is resolved for the most part by birth rate, passing rate, and relocation designs (movement and migration). For example the populace in the created nations like Europe and America is developing at rate of just 0.1% every year while in creating nations the development rate is over 1.5% every year. (Wright and Boorse,2011) (UNDP). In creating nations where difficult work is still viewed as fundamental wellspring of work, youngsters structure some portion of the work power and along these lines families will in general have more kids. Likewise when the annuity framework isn't great, individuals will in general bring up more kids to take care of during seniority. Any place ladies are increasingly instructed and take lead job in family unit pay exercises, there will in general be less number of kids raised. In zones where conventions, culture and traditions are regarded populace will in general be higher because of less utilization of contraceptives. III. Effects of populace development Despite the fact that it might be hard to quantify the conveying limit with regards to people on earth (Cohen, 1995) researchers have evaluated the bearing limit at 7.7 billion individuals (Van Den Bergh and Rietveld, 2004). It is currently evaluated that the total populace will be around 9.1 billion continuously 2050. The high populace development has raised worries that the planet will be unable to continue such populace over the long haul. Expanding populace will mean expanded interest for nourishment, water, and different assets, for example, non-renewable energy source. The effect of populace development can be seen by everybody who care for the world that we live in. In the course of the most recent couple of decades there has been enormous scale devastation of the tropical woodlands predominantly to make land accessible for agribusiness and for urbanization. So as to create enough nourishment to fulfill the need of developing populace, woods have been cleared to attempt cultivating. Because of expanded industrialization and urbanization, there has been incredible increment in the contamination of air, water and the earth of the planet. Developing populace will result in the consumption of regular assets, for example, water, non-renewable energy sources (Hubert, 1982); deforestation and loss of biological systems; and rise of new ailments. It will likewise prompt more starvation, craving and unhygienic living conditions in poor nations. IV. Variables influencing condition Condition implies our surroundings wherein every one of the things, living or non living, which incorporates climate (air), hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (strong earth), biosphere (every living being), and geosphere (rocks and regoliths). Various elements influence our condition which incorporates anthropogenic exercises, for example, urbanization, industrialization, deforestation, overpopulation, and utilization of petroleum derivatives. Catastrophic events, for example, quakes, volcanoes, violent winds, avalanche and floods can likewise adversely influence the earth. V. Connection among condition and populace development People are a necessary piece of the eco-arrangement of nature and there is close interconnection between individuals and condition. As far back as life existed people have been relying upon their condition for sustenance, cover, and different necessities. There is a backwards relationship existing between populace development and condition as overpopulation will prompt antagonistic impact on nature. As human populace increment, there is additionally increment in the interest for sustenance and other vitality sources. It is basic that the populace is kept up at a level with the goal that the normal assets are adequate to meet the prerequisite for survival of every single living being. VI. Neo-Malthusian or cynical perspectives on populace development Malthusian speculations or critical hypotheses on populace development was gotten from the thoughts of Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus, a British researcher who composed arrangement of articles on the standards of populace. There were six versions of his An Essay on the Principle of Population (distributed from 1798 to 1826) in which he said that if the human populace development is left unchecked the sustenance supply won't be adequate to address the issues of people. He proposed the possibility that while human populace developed exponentially, the sustenance assets became just mathematically. He likewise accepted that populace will be controlled normally by infection, starvation and mortality. This was called as the negative model of populace development. Malthus had faith in utilizing preventive checks, for example, restraint, deferred marriage and limiting relational unions so as to control populace development. A few people censured Malthus s hypothesis dependent on the way that there has been an upgraded rural generation and decreased human ripeness in the course of recent decades since the production of his speculations. In any case, many still have confidence in his hypothesis that whenever left unchecked, populace development can present major issues for asset accessibility (Cristina, 2010). Neo-Malthusianism These are bunches who additionally have faith in the hypotheses of Malthus and energize populace control programs for the present and future advantage of individuals. The Neo-Malthusians see anyway vary from Malthus in their conviction on the utilization of prophylactic strategies for the anti-conception medication measures. The neo-Malthusians or the negative view had more worries about the impact that populace development would have on ecological corruption. While they upheld the hypotheses set forward by Malthus, this gathering of individuals unequivocally bolstered the possibility of effectively controlling populace development so as to anticipate antagonistic effect on the earth. This cynical gathering are worried about the impact overpopulation may have on asset consumption and natural corruption. There has been a general restoration in neo-Malthusian belief systems from the 1950s onwards particularly after the distribution of arrangement of books by some Malthusian supporters, for example, Fairfield Osborn (Our Plundered Planet), William Vogt (Road to Survival) and Paul Ehrlich (The Population Bomb). Albeit numerous faultfinders of neo-Malthusianism condemn the restoration of this hypothesis dependent on actuality that the green insurgency has prompted adequate nourishment generation, Pessimists, for example, Paul Ehrlich accept that unchecked populace will at last lead to significant issues later on (Ehrlich, 2009). Neo-Malthusian or the critical view is progressively about the positive checks however Malthusian said that there is balance between both positive and negative checks. Mechanical or Optimistic perspectives on populace development. The hopeful model of populace development was proposed by Julian Simon who in his book The Ultimate Resource (1981) contended that as assets become rare the cost goes up which thusly makes motivating forces for individuals to find new source or discover choices for the asset. Simon likewise asserts in his book that the common assets are interminable dependent on the support that imaginative strategies can be utilized to make characteristic assets accessible. Expanding populace development and diminished assets make individuals to make advancements and creations to deliver more nourishment and every single essential need. The hopeful view said that science and innovation can conquer shortage issues. Esther Boserup (1910-1999)- Danish financial expert said need is the mother of innovation . In this way, humankind will dependably figure out how to defeat their issues. The hopeful view additionally said that more individuals implies more choices to discover new materials and find approaches to get things done. Dialog It tends to be seen from the above sections that populace development can affect on the condition of condition of our planet. Of the two hypotheses on populace development, I bolster the neo-malthusian hypothesis of negative perspectives dependent on the accompanying supports. Deforestation for horticulture On the off chance that the human populace development is left unchecked, multi day may come when the earth s assets won't almost certainly support the necessities of individuals. As overpopulation will request expanding sustenance, vitality, and different assets, people will participate in exercises that will legitimately influence our condition and biological system. For example, around 160,000 square kilometers for each of tropical rainforests are cleared for agrarian utilize in this way bringing about loss of natural surroundings for the biodiversity (Laurance, 1999). Such loss of woods will add to an unnatural weather change and other negative consequences for condition. Urbanization/industrialization In ord>GET ANSWER