- Total welfare:
a. Is measured by Gross National (or Domestic) Product.
b. Equals economic welfare plus noneconomic welfare.
c. In the U.S. has continued to track nearly identically with GNP as measured by the Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare.
d. Has nothing to do with the consumption of market goods and services.
- A purely competitive market is typically defined by:
a. Many buyers and sellers.
b. Perfect information.
c. A homogeneous product.
d. Answers A and B.
e. All of the above.
- Crop pollination from naturally occurring bee populations is an example of:
a. A negative externality.
b. An ecosystem service.
c. A stock-flow resource.
d. A rival and excludable service.
- The term “race to the bottom” refers to:
a. The rapid extraction of natural resources caused by economic growth, particularly fossil fuels, metals and other important minerals.
b. Competition among industrialized nations in the global north, which seek to expand into the developing markets of the global south.
c. A phenomenon in which countries seeking to attract economic activity will deregulate businesses, leading to lower wages, worse working conditions and fewer environmental protections.
d. Competition among the world’s major fossil fuel companies for deepwater drilling technology that would allow for the extraction of offshore oil and gas.
II. Short Answer. Please answer the following questions concisely. (10 points each.)
- Describe how the goals of sustainable scale and just distribution are interrelated. (See chapter 1 of your book)
- What was the Glass-Steagall Act? When was it implemented and what was its purpose?
- Consider the natural resource of water. Is water a fund-service or stock-flow resource? In what context? Describe the physical and economic characteristics of water.
- How many separate indicators comprise the Genuine Progress Indicator? Describe three separate indicators of your choice, making clear whether it is a cost or a benefit. Are there indicators that you would either add or remove from the list? Why?
- What does it mean to tax bads rather than goods? Give examples.
III. Short Essays. Please elaborate on the following questions. (15 points each.)
- What are three policies that you believe would help move us towards a sustainable scale for our economy? Briefly describe how each of them would help with the issue of sustainable scale.
- What are three policies that you believe would help move us towards a more equitable society/economy? Briefly describe how each of them would help with the issue of just distribution.
The City-Heiress. The protagonist is disinherit by Sir Timothy Treat-all after he scatters a lot of money. Becoming poor, his plan is to escape with Charlot, heiress with a fortune of ??3,000 a year. In Behn's work there are attempts of forced marriage in which relatives, usually the parents, insist that their child must marry somenone specific. The parents insisted just for financial reasons and the child was usually against it because there was no love. A character that finds herself in a similar situation is Florinda in The Rover. Don Pedron, her brother, tells her that she sould be happy to marry Don Vincention, an old man, but rich enough to overlook this aspect. Of course, she is against such marriage and says "such a Wedlock would be worse than Adultery" . Althought most comedy supposes that love would overcome the practical economic considerations, historical evidence suggests something else. Women were most likely to look first for economic advantages and then for love. Behn showed up through her work that she is against forced marriages but she shows how the legal and economic system influences women's desires. Leticia Bredwell in The Luckey Chance marries Sir Feeble Fainwould, an oldman. She does not love him or even like him, but that does not matter to much because he is rich. When Bellmour, her former suitor, proves to be alive, she asks to be understood: 'remember I was poor and helpless. / And much reduc'd, and much impos'd upon'. But there are situations in which her characters refuse to marry just for the sake of comfort and money. In The Wandring Beauty the main character is a virtuous woman. Arabella Fairname chooses to walk away from her family rather than being forced to marry old Sir Robert Richland. Even it is clearly not a easy path to follow, she works as a servant for several years. She is rewarded for her courage to leave all behind and pursue her believes by marrying the virtuous and rich Sir Lucius Lovewell. But reading Behn's work it is obvious that even if she is against arranged marriages, she suggests that women might be forgiven for choosing the easiest way to avoid a tough life. Aphra Behn was very interested in a particular subject: the true value of women and what society things of this. Just like nowadays, money were back then the most important thing and maybe the only thing that would make anything possible. Virginia Wolf writes in A rooms of one's one something very interesting regarding this aspect: 'Aphra Behn proved that money could be made by writing at the sacrifice, perhaps, of certain agreeable qualities; and so by degrees writing became not merely a sign of folly and a distracted mind, but was of practical importance. A husband might die, or some disaster overtake the family. Hundreds of women began as the eighteenth century drew on to add to their pin money, or to come to the rescue of their families by making translations or writing the innumerable had novels which have ceased to be recorded even in text-books, but are to be picked up in the fourpenny boxes in the Charing Cross Road. The extreme activity of mind which showed itself in the later eighteenth century among women ' the talking, and the meeting, the writing of essays on Shakespeare, the translating of the classics ' was founded on the solid fact that women could make money by writing.' When Petronella tries to convince the courtesan La Nuche in The Second Part of The Rover not to give her love away for free, she emphasize a real but overlooked fact: money is more important than beauty. But Petronella does not really believe in the power of opulent wealth alone because she steals La Nuche's jewels in hopes of setting herself up as a courtesan, but she also wants to restore her youth and beauty by buying a magic elixir. Behn tries to separate the concept of female beauty from female wealth. Regarding this aspect, in The Second Part of The Rover she present two female "monsters" from Mexico, a Giant and a Dwarf. The most important thing is that they both are rich. Even if men find both women disgusting, their perspective change in time. Four male characters plane to marry them just for their fortune, and two ultimately do. So even if a woman's beauty was very important, her fortune was much more important. Besides these two things, nothing really mattered. The Rover- female characters The female characters from The Rover are not so common. Each one of them seems to behave differently from who they appear to be at first. The female characters have a hidden desire for independence, something not really possible for a woman in those times. However, the three main female characters are capable of expressing their desires. Hellena plans to act as she wants and 'not as my wise brother imagines' . Florinda and Angellica Bianca have a similar view upon their independence. They do not baheve like they have no competence and need to rely on a man. Moreover, they have strong personalities that allows them to express their feelings. Each of them has a fate presented at the begining of the play. Florinda is bound to marriage, Hellena to nunnery and Angellica Bianca to prostitution. During the Carnival, these three characters have the chance to abandon thei position and become who they desire. They want to "be mad as the rest, and take all innocent freedoms ". Beside this rare possibility ofered by this event, The Carnival has other functions. One of them is the dissapearence of class distinctions. The ladies become lost in the f>GET ANSWER