Question 1

Define what is meant by an “organization” in the context of a business organization and the role of the manager in an organization.

Question 2
Carl has been having difficulty making his performance goals recently, as have most employees in his area. If Carl tends to blame his own ability rather than external factors, what error is Carl making? How can Carl overcome this error?

Question 3
People from different work areas who are permanently assigned to work together to bring a new good or service to market comprise ________.
Select one:
a. virtual teams
b. ad hoc teams
c. multifunctional teams
d. cross-functional teams

Question 4
What term applies to a situation in which complying with one requirement of a group role makes it difficult, and perhaps impossible, to comply with another requirement?
Select one:
a. Role conflict
b. Role adaptation
c. Role expectation
d. Role perception

Question 5
What type of work group system should be considered when teams that all have different functions need to be closely coordinated?
Select one:
a. Multi-teams
b. Virtual teams
c. Self-managed teams
d. Quality-control teams

Question 6
Describe the five general personality traits of the Big Five model.

Question 7
AJAX Distributing is a leader in global marketing of home decorating products. Because of the fast-paced nature of its business and the constantly changing competitive environment, AJAX supervisors are constantly under pressure to make decisions. The department manager wants to leave decision making in the hands of the employees he knows have higher mental ability. However, his boss (the VP) does not agree that smart people always make the best decisions. They are both correct. Explain how individuals with higher mental ability can be both the best and not the best at making decisions as compared to other individuals.

Question 8
Compare and contrast unfair discrimination and diversity management as it relates to organizational behavior at the institutional level.

Question 9
Explain the difference between an organic organizational structure and a mechanistic organizational structure.

Question 10
What are integrating mechanisms in the context of organizational behavior and how do organizations use integrating mechanisms?

Question 11
Discuss the cognitive dissonance theory. How do individuals seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior?

Question 12
Why is it particularly important to group behavior that an organization provide proper leadership and structure to work groups and teams?

Question 13
ABC Industries is adjusting its strategic focus toward being a leader in small-batch technology. What type of authority structure must ABC have in place to successfully make this move and why is that structure necessary?

Question 14
What are the motivational advantages of a functional organizational structure?










Sample Solution

Sample solution

Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell. 

In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.

God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.

Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.

To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.



Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.

Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies4(8), 487.

Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.