Response 1)Kiona O.
Organizations Structure & Design
Organizational structure as defined by Minterzberg (1972), “is the framework of the relations on jobs, systems, operating process, people and groups making efforts to achieve the goals. Organizational structure is a set of methods dividing the task to determine duties and coordinates them” (Ahmady, Mehrpour, Nikoorvesh, 2016, p. 456). Mintzberg’s definition highlights that organizational structure relies on a combination of factors that work as a collective to make an organization what it is and what it wants to be. There are various organizational structures and designs, that fall into two categories, physical and social.
An organization chooses a structure on the basis that best fits their organization, it can be based on factors such as organization’s complexity, number of members, company size and management. Once an organization’s structure and design is chosen, the next obstacle is communication. Communication within organizations is often facilitated by organizational leaders.The structure of an organization greatly influences and impacts organizational leaders. Spaho stated, “Managers spend majority of their time communication in several forms: meeting, face-to-face discussion, letters, emails etc” (2012, p.309). Managers are constantly communicating, every manager communicates differently not only due to their own personal style but, due to an organization’s structure and design.
The way communication flows in every organization is dependent upon the structure of management and this in turn impacts the organizational leaders. Most organizations hope to utilize various directions of communication. This impacts organizational leaders because often they are tasked with being a sender and receiver of communication and the dispersion of communication, whether it be correct or not will impact an organization.
Organizational structure and design is important in that it sets the tone for organizational leaders, which in turn sets the tone for other employees as well. The structure will determine the direction of communication whether that be downward, upward, horizontal or diagonal. Most importantly organizations structure and design impacts every aspect of an organization but the most important has and continues to be communication. As Spaho (2012) stated, “communication is required not only for human relations but for a good and successful business”(p.309).
Ahmady, G. A., Mehrpour, M., & Nikooravesh, A. (2016). Organizational structure.
Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 455-462
Kenan Spaho. (2012). Organizational communication process. Ekonomski Vjesnik,
Response 2)Samridhi C.
Organizational Structure and Design
Organizational structure serves as one of the fundamental components of dictating how communication is facilitated within an entity. It is the framework by which task, duty, and role distribution is determined (Ahmady, Mehrpour & Nikooravesh, 2016). It is imperative that these structures are set up in a manner that promote decision making, conflict resolution, and a truly conducive learning environment.
There are several factors that can impact how organizational structures are created and are some of the underlying reasons why each organization differs from the next. These factors can include organization goals, strategies, environment, technology, size, etc. For instance, a family run business will have a very different organizational structure than a pharmaceutical company. This is largely due to the differences in the aforementioned factors for each of the two businesses. By evaluating them, we are able to lay a framework that best allows us to meet the needs of our specific organization.
While these structures can be classified in a number of ways, the two that are largely used are organic and mechanistic structures (Ahmady, Mehropour & Nikooravesh, 2016). Organic structures contain less horizontal differentiation, have high collaboration, flexible tasks, and informal communication. This structure might be more prevalent among startup companies where there isn’t a strict hierarchical set up. Meanwhile, a mechanistic structure is one in which there is more formal communication, centralized decision making and more inflexible relations. This might be more common amongst well established entities such as law firms or banks where there are multiple levels of authority and levels of expertise.
An organization can be further broken down into five main sections. The first section is the operative core which consists of workers that are responsible for carrying out the organization’s tasks. It is followed by the strategic apex which refers to the top level management and its support staff. Next is the middle line which includes the managers that exist between the operating core and top management. Finally, there is a techno structure which includes analysts who carry out the duties or standards of the organization and the support staff which aids in linking with organizational activities.
Ultimately, while it may seem as though organization structure is simply the skeleton of a business, it is crucial for effective communication within any organization. As such, communication is very dynamic and new ideas and meanings are created everyday. This eventually develops into a language that becomes unique to the culture of the particular organization. There are various types and methodologies of organizational communication. One example includes span of control which refers to the number of persons who report to a superior within an organization (Spaho, 2012). As the span of control widens, a communication barrier begins to develop and the effectiveness of the communication channels begins to weaken. This communication can be either informal or formal. This is entirely dependent on the organizational structure and dynamics of a particular organization. The two notions are interdependent and play a fundamental role in determining the success of an organization.
Ahmady, G. A., Mehrpour, M., & Nikooravesh, A. (2016). Organizational structure. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 455-462.
Kenan Spaho. (2012). Organizational communication process. Ekonomski Vjesnik, XXV(2), 309-317.
"Will web based life help convert advertising as for the most part attention to advertising as generally connections? Talk about." This article will talk about whether online networking can help convert advertising from for the most part being tied in with picking up/gathering attention to advertising being for the most part about connections. Who, where, what, when and why? Conventional PR was tied in with getting the correct message, to the opportune individuals at the ideal time through a solitary message conveyed by means of broad communications (press, TV, radio). The current multi-channel, multi-gadget computerized scene has changed this quite a lot more adaptability and versatility is expected of online interchanges. There has never been a period of greater chance to expand your image/organization mindfulness on the web yet client relations additionally needs cautious administration ideally by a committed online networking group. It is begging to be proven wrong whether an organization or the overall population (customers) have more power and impact over its picture. From one perspective it very well may be contended that the customer has more power and impact for instance Pret opened a spring up vegetarian eatery which was affected by the huge (developing) veggie lover sustenance development (in the overall population) and Pret then changed the menu to more veggie lover agreeable contributions, additionally Starbucks was affected by purchaser assessments/perspectives to move away from fundamental espresso contributions to more craftsman espresso contributions. Michael Kors was likewise impacted by shopper sentiments/perspectives to move away from offering essential satchels. Irn Bru's formula change (they are diminishing sugar substance following government rules) is causing huge disturbed among clients. Brand notoriety is (to a limited degree) significant in impacting buyer conclusion and conduct so it is essential to develop/support client connections on the web. Dishonest organizations will get fined and disgraced for instance Canada Geese and Starbucks. Extravagance brands, for example, Rolex watches are viewed as a materialistic trifle and are optimistic way of life things. VIPs impact individuals to settle on decisions/choices on the web (so great PR is pull involved with big names and different influencers). On the off chance that things turn out badly on the web, at that point the brand notoriety is to some degree wrecked yet enormous organizations, for example, Amazon do have huge flexibility to PR botches. Lavish is a carefully assembled makeup organization which is veggie lover and not tried on creatures which has turned out to be enormous now as a development. Autos, for example, Jaguar, Porsche and Ferrari are notable and a gigantic materialistic trifle for individuals to claim. Strangely, Body Shop have been brought by L'Oreal (seen as exploitative by a few) and Innocent Smoothies have been brought by Coca Cola (the biggest sodas producer on the planet and somehow or another far from the little league moral network disapproved of soul of Innocent!). Millennial's consideration extraordinarily about morals. In spite of the fact that superstars are great to extend your PR message on the web and advance your organization there are late instances of monstrous failures to discharge by organizations on the web. For instance, there was an immense reaction over Kylie Jenner's Black Lives Matter Pepsi advertisement and furthermore over the prejudice from H&M when a white youngster wore a "Lord of the Jungle/Survival Expert" jumper and the dark tyke wore a "Coolest Monkey in the Jungle" jumper. Online networking influencers/bloggers are powerful after some time and this requires time and exertion as far as electronic PR. Seat De Pie (YouTuber) lost sponsorship over less than ideal enemy of Semitic remarks and tyke sex entertainment remarks. Blockbuster video did not change with the occasions quickly enough and Netflix came in and now it is no longer in business. Brewdog (specialty lager producer) has turned out to be extremely huge and fixated by KPI's (Key Performance Indicators) and it does ridiculous things and over the top things only for exposure and consideration. At Redbull and Brewdog you won't be employed in the event that you go up to a meeting for instance which is pointless as I would see it, yet might be viewed as in vogue by some others. TripAdvisor has a major impact over an organizations' picture since client appraisals and audits effectively upgrade or mischief an organizations' picture. A nearby model is a nursery focus in Inverurie began selling creature hides and there were huge dissents and furthermore there were blacklists compromised when Irn Bru declared it was changing its formula (since individuals are hostile to sugar). Additionally Irn Bru is currently made/prepared in England in Milton Keynes yet is most regularly related (and generally accessible) in Scotland. On equalization at that point, organizations have more influence and impact over their picture since they have the methods (time, cash, labor) to control their picture to the outside world. An expression of alert is maybe we are somehow or another too naïve on the grounds that there are accounts of Chinese and Indian bots making phony surveys and evaluations on TripAdviser so perhaps don't trust all that you see online so online PR ought to be tied in with making substantial/genuine messages on the web so the organization/association can be viewed as reliable, trustworthy and solid. Grunig, J.E. and Chun-ju Flora Hung-Baesecke (2015, p71) accept that connections can't be qualified an incentive in absolutely financial terms (like in the past with conventional PR) as it is indefinable and unbelievable as it is to a greater degree an inclination (suppositions and perspectives) these days. (2015,P76) they presume that a notoriety is made out of a mix of the whole measure of the learning and perspectives and assessments of each powerful body. (2015, p78) Reputations are adaptable and versatile to changing conditions and circumstances socially, publically, monetarily and politically. (2015, p92) It is a long way from obvious about organization discernments and the outcomes are blended and demonstrate that even with a decent notoriety an organization can be remembered for awful things and the other way around so online PR must be painstakingly arranged and sorted out for important outcomes. (2015, p105) ". The more vivacious and dynamic you are tied in with speaking and talking about an organization the more disposed you are to have cerebrum portrayals of the organization, to remember positive and negative activities and to state satisfaction and perhaps frustration with administrations and things. The less lively and dynamic you are tied in with speaking and talking about an organization the more consistently you will consider shallow and clear mind portrayals of the organization, for example, logical components, inward and outer staff, or different things/things associated with the organization. Gruing and Baesecke (2015, p107) concoct various outcomes/proposals/recommendations which are: PR staff who are worried about guarding or expanding in a constructive manner the status/standing, and the relationship, of the organizations they are in they ought to accomplish this by effectively captivating in the arranged sorted out methods of the organization with the goal that they can have a conceivable expert on the organization activities chosen by the individuals in control. The traditional technique for expressing foreordained articulations after moves are made would have a minor result on both standing/status or affiliations. In assessment and reflection this creator suggests that PR staff should fixate their consideration on relationship as a measure of similarly the significance and centrality and achievement of their endeavors. The creators study's decisions additionally prescribe that PR activities have an expanded scholastic and trial relationship to relationship than to standing/status, and that affiliations should be the focal point of consideration of evaluation ponders in PR. T.Kelleher (2015, p281) analyzes the job of PR in the current advanced scene of the blast of Social Media use. In the past they were worried about mass-observation and perspectives and sentiments and conveying an institutionalized message to a wide changed and assorted populace. These days, web based life has moved the concentration to progressively individualized and customized correspondence. What's more, subsequently PR has changed its concentrate moreover. (P283-p286)- to address this paper question I should initially analyze what is implied by the term Social Media. There is impressive insightful discussion better how best to characterize this term however generally researchers concur there is a particular and positive distinction between Social Media and the times of old mass correspondence. P288-The expanding complexity and progress in devices and methods have decreased use for putting away and getting ready things of utilization and making the record/record of individual to-individual dialogs and business bargains simpler to discover by web indexes. P290-Social media has made the wide field of the globe littler by separating obstructions to correspondence and making correspondence between far away puts simpler and with a more noteworthy feeling of closeness. (2015, p296-297) ." Put clients first when contemplating a PR methodology and you will be compensated with buyer conviction, certainty, endorsement, understanding, devotion/unwaveringness, and authoritative assistance and backing as related outcomes. P297-Social media utilization is a twofold edged sword and must be deliberately overseen and controlled to get your organization or association your ideal result as it is anything but difficult to harm notorieties on the web and in the present mass-use scene of web based life this can have a gigantic effect for your organization. P298-There are advantages and disadvantages to Social media utilization in PR however it is indispensable/fundamental to change with the occasions and furthermore we have to think inside and remotely when utilizing web-based social networking for PR exercises. Solis and Breakenridge (2009, p37) agree and concur that organizations should be on Social Media-PR can't endure on the off chance that it doesn't have the confidence of the individuals who accept and approve us with the trademark/brand name of the association we represent. PR is changing, and to proceed on we have much knowledge assembling and focusing on do. Connection/affiliations should in any case be at the heart/center of PR. P201-Ignore web based life as an organization/association at your danger – make a plunge and get included be the place the individuals are! D.L Wilcox and G.T. Cameron (2014) likewise ag>GET ANSWER