In Knowing the Oriental, Edward Said analyzes an attitude he calls “orientalism.” Then, in Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830-1914,
Patrick Brantlinger applies this concept to the novel Heart of Darkness (see Chapters 6 and 9).
In two to three pages (excluding title and reference pages), discuss the application of orientalism to Conrad’s novel. First, explain in your own words what
Said means by orientalism and why he finds it problematic. Then, apply this concept to Heart of Darkness. (If your instructor did not assign Heart of
Darkness, you may have to rely on Brantlinger’s discussion of Heart of Darkness in Chapter 9 of his book.) In what ways does Conrad reflect the British
attitude of orientalism toward Africa in Heart of Darkness and in what ways does he challenge such attitudes?
The successful elements of Isotype in relation to a pictographic language, were of the work of Marie Neurath and Gerd Arntz. Together they developed Otto’s movement into an expanded practice which generated a great amount of pictograms that represented everyday life, objects, nature, almost everything at the time that could be visually represented (Neurath. M, 2009). Shown without context, the pictograms worked universally within western nations that shared similar technical development, history, environment and cultural associations; as the majority of complex symbols needed some prior experience or knowledge from seeing things in the real world. […] ‘the symbols had to ‘speak’ to the Nigerians, just as they had to the Viennese; men, women, children had to look as they did there; houses could not have chimneys; but in the essential rules of transformation, nothing needed to be changed.’ (Neurath. M, 2009. p. 75) Bruno Munari argued that symbols work like poetry when constructed linearly. That for a symbol to be understandable there needs to be an element of interpretation. A pictogram of a bicycle, for example, could have many different meanings and uses, similar to a word. […] ’use the symbols as the words are used in a poem: they will have more than one meaning, and the meanings will change accordingly to where they are put.’ (Munari. B, 1966). It seems that for a pictographic language to function in consideration of a persons or peoples interpretation, it needs to act in a similar way to text. Chapter 2: Developing A Language and Interpreting Meaning. Xu Bing tells the story of a day in his life with pictograms in his project, Book From the Ground Up (fig.8). He uses the pictograms similarly to how we use words, allowing for interpretation of a symbol when paired with another. Depending on the pairing and placement of the symbols the meaning changes. Xu’s work establishes a framework for how a pictographic language could be written, and includes a variety of pictographic styles: a mixture of emojis, emoticons and symbols. The pictograms come from mostly digital culture, and so for a computer literate reader, are understood. Xu’s work also followed the ideas of semiosis and how it […] ‘is not a one-way process with a fixed meaning. It is part of an active process between the sign and the reader of the sign.’ (Crow.D, 2016. p.38). If interpretation is an active part of language, how does it develop within a culture? Book From the Ground Up communicates using digital language, for a book to function universally would it need to start from scratch or piece together symbols from different cultures and societies? fig.8 Book from the Ground: From Point-to-Point (Xu.B, 2014) Directed to art, interpretation means plucking a set of elements (the X, the Y, the Z, and so forth) from the whole work. The task of interpretation is virtually one of translation. The interpreter says, Look, don’t you see that X is really – or, really means – A? That Y is really B? That Z is really C? (Sontag.S, 1966. pg.3). Sontag argues that ‘plucking’ parts from an artwork prevents the viewer from considering the piece as a whole. In the sense of a pictogram, would reading certain marks and shapes separately obstruct u>GET ANSWER