Transitioning from cybersecurity to physical security, this module examines how our nation’s critical infrastructure is affected by the vulnerable cyber technology that controls its daily functions.
In his 2012 Defcon 20 cybersecurity conference presentation, Dan Tentler, founder of the San Diego-based information security consulting firm AtenLabs, shared screenshots of dozens of connected devices he could find on the Internet using a laptop and browser. He was able to access several critical infrastructure systems, showing that they were vulnerable to cyber-attack. His presentation vividly demonstrated that the Internet was not designed with security in mind.
Network-ready industrial control systems that monitor and control the physical processes of machines have become the instruments that contribute to a threat we call physical security. The machines we rely on to supply energy, drinking water, and safe food are at risk. The potential security weakness of SCADA systems was exposed by a cyber-attack against the Natanz Iran uranium enrichment facility. A computer worm, called Stuxnet, caused the facility’s control systems to make the centrifuges spin out of control. Stuxnet, a cyber-weapon that changed modern warfare, does not discriminate between nations; it simply attacks and destroys computer-managed machines.
1)Using three different industries, provide three examples of physical security dangers faced by SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) network systems.
2)After reviewing Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21), discuss a national policy to strengthen and maintain secure, functioning, and resilient critical infrastructure. What is resilient infrastructure? Provide two examples of how this concept protects people and property.
growth and survival, memory, and executive function (Bennett et al., 2016). Studies have demonstrated BDNF’s importance in cognition following brain injury as it has been shown to increase in the hippocampus following brain injury and influence repair (McAllister et al., 2012). These genes play a critical role in the emergence of vegetative and minimally conscious states following brain trauma. By modulating the repair processes and inflammation following brain injuries, these genes can have a significant effect on the outcomes of these injuries by offering neuroprotective benefits that reduce the chances of entering a vegetative or minimally conscious state. Thus, polymorphisms or mutations in these genes can negatively impact the repair process following a brain injury and increase the chance of entering a vegetative or minimally conscious state. Mutations Polymorphisms in TNF, specifically -238 A/G and -308 A/G, have been implicated in the outcome of inflammatory conditions. Studies have demonstrated that unfavorable outcomes following traumatic brain injury such as death and vegetative state were more likely in individuals with the -308 A allele. It is suggested that this may be due to the effect this allele has on the expression of TNF, as those with the -308 A allele have increased expression of TNF after injury. Studies investigating polymorphisms in IL-1 suggest that they are associated with unfavorable outcomes following brain injuries. The APOE4 allele has been linked to the development of Alzheimer’s Disease due to its influence in the development of amyloid beta in the brain. Additionally, individuals with this allele have an increase risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease if they have a history of brain injury. It has also been suggested that this allele can result in poorer outcomes following brain injury and a higher chance of experiencing loss of con>GET ANSWER