Overview of the Antarctic Continent and the Political and Scientific Interests and Treaties

Q1. Comparison and contrast of The Fast Runner and Ten Canoes.

Similarities

The socio-political significance of both films is tied to historiographical concerns. Secondly, at first glance, both films seem to reproduce power relations that can be interpreted as damaging to the possibility of self-controlled world cinema. The movies bring this expectation through the use of various sophisticated aesthetic strategies. Thirdly, both films share a significant connection of social technology that functions in its unique ways depending on whether the engagement is expressed esoterically or exoterically by the relevant communities. Fourthly, both films engage the viewer in a metaphorical story-telling mode, full of symbolic associations, the projection of colonial fantasies and romantic idealization (The Fast Runner, 2002). Lastly, the films are both concerned with creating a link with a past that transforms the observer-oriented dynamics of traditional materials into culturally rich and educational dynamic forms.

Contrast

The stories of the two films in consideration of pre-European timeframe inevitably borrow a lot from the simple representational framework of specific traditional ethnography. However, each film borrows from a different ethnographical representation. For instance, the Fast Runner draws narrative and aesthetic conventions from Robert Flaherty’s Nanook of the North, while Ten Canoes borrows much from Donald Thomson photographs. The other difference is that, as opposed to the Fast Runner, the narrator of the Ten Canoes exercises authority over the film through his acknowledgment of rights over the material.

Thirdly, the Fast Runner reveals the selflessness of the younger generation through the guidance of older generation’s spiritual instructions, while the Ten Canoes disclose the selflessness of an older generation through the tribal leader, Minygululu. Fourthly, the Ten Canoes uses a personal rather than traditional storytelling structure while the Fast Runner follows a conventional storytelling style (The Fast Runner, 2002). Additionally, the Ten Canoes tends to tell a story of the lives of people who were guided by human flaws, fears, and universal desires while the Fast Runner gives an overview of the general style that the 19th-century men used to live.

Q2. A Travel Guide for Students Interested in Studying Abroad in Antarctica

The students should prepare for floating between glacier-draped mountains, icebergs, and islands. The Antarctic Peninsula will act as the mainland where the reviews will occur. Additionally, the students will be cruising on expedition ship equipped with Zodiac landing crafts to allow excursions ashore within the peninsula for access of spectacular sceneries (Pyne, 2017). The students should also be prepared to visit the South Shetland Islands. The place has warm volcanic soil and warmer water underground. The students should be familiar with swimming techniques to allow for access to the streaming hot water pool under the volcanic soil.

Particular subjects are best offered in Antarctica. The most popular areas of study include wildlife, sustainability, and wilderness (Pyne, 2017). The issues are majorly associated with environmental studies due to the nature of the island and the Antarctic Treaty. The treaty directs that the wilderness should only be used as a natural scientific laboratory where observations and explorations reign. The students should expect some varied experiences. Currently, the continent is considered as the world-class wildness experience. The other expectation is that the area is regarded as the coldest in the world. It is thus mandatory to carry enough thermal underwear to avoid freezing to death. Also, the place puts all visitors’ off-the-map and off-the-grid. Communications with the mainland are thus reserved only for emergency cases (Pyne, 2017). The experience will, therefore, push the limits of each student’s comfort zone.

Packing List for the Students

  • Warm socks
  • Base Layers
  • Waterproof pants
  • Knee high waterproof boots
  • Hat, Gloves & Scarf
  • Camera
  • Binoculars
  • Waterproof Camera Bag
  • Seasickness Medication
  • Backpack

Q3. The Antarctic Treaty

The Antarctica treaty was officially signed on 1st December 1959 in Washington DC. B a total of twelve countries whose scientists participated in and around Antarctica at during the International Geophysical Year (GYI) that took place between 1957 and 1958 (UN Antarctic Treaty, 1959). The Treaty came into effect as from 1961 and has since been joined by several other nations. Currently, there are fifty-three parties to the treaty. The signatories to the agreement were seven countries. They include Chile, Australia, Argentina, the United Kingdom, Norway, France, and New Zealand. Russia and the United States maintain some basis of the claim while other countries do not recognize any such claims (UN Antarctic Treaty, 1959).

According to UN Antarctic Treaty (1959), the rules stipulated by the treaty include;

Rule 1. Antarctica shall only be used for the purposes of peace.

Rule 2. The scientific research freedom in the region and participation in consideration of investigations shall continue without interruptions.

Rule 3. The observations made scientifically and their results shall be freely placed in public platforms for ease of access.

Rule 4. No party shall be allowed to expand its existing claim provided the current Treaty is still in force.

Rule 5. There shall be no nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive waste materials in the region.

Rule 6. The provisions of the existing Treaty shall be applied to all areas within the Antarctic region.

Rule 7. Each party to the Treaty has the right to conduct inspection to enhance observance of the region. The inspections shall be carried by national from party members.

Rule 8. The scientists sent to carry out research in the area shall only be subject to jurisdiction of the contracting party.

Rule 9. Those parties who join the Treaty through accession are entitled to appoint those who would represent them in every meeting concerning the affairs of the Antarctic region.

Rule 10. While carrying out various activities in the region, each party shall adhere to the principles laid out in the existing Treaty.

Q5. a. Dataset on Nunavut

Population: approximately 33,330 people

Time zones: The mountain zone:-UTC-07:00, the Central zone:-UTC-06:00 and the Eastern zone:-UTC-05:00

Year that Nunavut became a province: 1 April 1999

Capital city: Iqaluit

Major religious groups: 67% of the population are Protestants. The remaining population belongs to Catholic, Islam, Jew, Hindu or Sikhs (Rice, 2016).

Language (s) spoken: English, French, Inuktitut, and Inuinnaqtun.

Significant museums: Nunatta Sunaqutangit Museum

A form of government: The executive power is exercised by nineteen elected legislature which ultimately appoints a premier for the territorial jurisdiction.

  1. Dataset on Antarctica

Population: varies from approximately 1,100 in the harsh Antarctic winter to around 4,400 people.

Time zone: Each research station chooses its own time zone (usually based on its home country)

Year of founding/earliest settlement: the Year 1786

Major museums or points of interest: Hollick-Kenyon, Rockefeller and the Polar Plateaus.

 

References

Pyne, S. J. (2017). The ice: A journey to Antarctica. University of Washington Press.

Rice, R. (2016). How to Decolonize Democracy: Indigenous Governance Innovation in Bolivia and Nunavut, Canada. Bolivian Studies Journal/Revista de Estudios Bolivianos, 22, 220-242.

The Fast Runner. (2002) Original title: Atanarjuat 174 minutes; Canadian Film Board and Igloolik Isuma Productions. http://www.isuma.tv/en/fast-runner-trilogy-pay-what-you-can-vod-download-starting-december-1st

UN Antarctic Treaty (1959). Retrieved from https://www.scar.org/

ACED ESSAYS