Patient presenting w/systemic lupus erythematosus

Ms. X, a 32-year-old Hispanic woman, has had a history of intermittent pleuritic chest pain and joint pain for the past several years. Recently, she went to her physician because she noticed that an erythematous, butterfly-shaped rash had appeared on her face. Further lab tests indicated protein in her urine. Her blood test indicated the presence of numerous antinuclear antibodies, especially anti-DNA, and mature neutrophils containing nuclear material. A diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was made.

  1. Discuss possible reasons why SLE was not diagnosed earlier. (See SLE Clinical Signs and Symptoms.)
  2. Discuss how the presence of antibodies can cause such widespread damage in organ systems. (See SLE Pathophysiology.)
  3. Discuss treatments for SLE and a prognosis for the patient in this case. (See SLE Treatment.)
  4. Identify the type of immune response involved.

Sample Solution