A 50-year-old woman with an 8-year history of diabetes mellitus presents with difficulty controlling her blood sugars for the past 2 weeks. Her self-monitoring blood glucose readings have been in the 200s–300s for 2 weeks. She has managed her type 2 DM with diet, exercise, and metformin 1,000 mg twice a day. Her last glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c) level, which was measured 2 months ago, was 6.8%. She has had asthma since age 18. She felt her asthma was getting worse for the past 6 months as she was having increased dyspnea and dry cough. She has managed her asthma with a daily combined long-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist, an inhaled corticosteroid, and montelukast. She also uses her short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist, albuterol, about once a day. She went to her pulmonologist about 2 months ago and was diagnosed with severe asthma. A decision was made to start her on oral prednisone (corticosteroid). The first month she took 5 mg a day with some relief, but the symptoms returned, so her prednisone dose was increased to 10 mg a day. She has been taking the 10 mg dose for 3 weeks. She says her breathing is better, but she feels increasingly tired and like she is gaining weight. Physical examination reveals an anxious woman with blood pressure of 144/92 mmHg; pulse of 90 beats per minute; respirations 20 per minute; and weight of 190 pounds. She is talking in full sentences. Lung sounds are clear bilaterally. No accessory muscles are being used. No cyanosis is present. Answer the following questions.
1. Though this item involves pharmacology, it is still important. Which is the most likely cause of this patient’s loss of glucose control? Inhaled corticosteroid Prednisone therapy Asthma exacerbation Albuterol
2. All of the following actions are important for this patient to learn regarding glucocorticoid therapy, but which is the most important? Monitor cuts for healing Take the medication with food Do not stop taking the medication abruptly Contact her healthcare provider if she has any manifestations of infection
3. Which endocrine condition is this patient at risk of developing? Hyperthyroidism Pheochromocytoma Addison disease Cushing syndrome
4. Given this patient’s acute loss of glucose control, which of the following interventions would be ordered for this patient? Insulin as needed per routine sliding scale (dosing based on blood glucose levels) Increase exercise Decrease caloric intake Decrease prednisone dose Elaborate, number each answer, and cite appropriately.
Dante Alighieri played a critical role in the literature world through his poem Divine Comedy that was written in the 14th century. The poem contains Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. The Inferno is a description of the nine circles of torment that are found on the earth. It depicts the realms of the people that have gone against the spiritual values and who, instead, have chosen bestial appetite, violence, or fraud and malice. The nine circles of hell are limbo, lust, gluttony, greed and wrath. Others are heresy, violence, fraud, and treachery. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Dante’s Inferno in the perspective of its portrayal of God’s image and the justification of hell.
In this epic poem, God is portrayed as a super being guilty of multiple weaknesses including being egotistic, unjust, and hypocritical. Dante, in this poem, depicts God as being more human than divine by challenging God’s omnipotence. Additionally, the manner in which Dante describes Hell is in full contradiction to the morals of God as written in the Bible. When god arranges Hell to flatter Himself, He commits egotism, a sin that is common among human beings (Cheney, 2016). The weakness is depicted in Limbo and on the Gate of Hell where, for instance, God sends those who do not worship Him to Hell. This implies that failure to worship Him is a sin.
God is also depicted as lacking justice in His actions thus removing the godly image. The injustice is portrayed by the manner in which the sodomites and opportunists are treated. The opportunists are subjected to banner chasing in their lives after death followed by being stung by insects and maggots. They are known to having done neither good nor bad during their lifetimes and, therefore, justice could have demanded that they be granted a neutral punishment having lived a neutral life. The sodomites are also punished unfairly by God when Brunetto Lattini is condemned to hell despite being a good leader (Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). While he commited sodomy, God chooses to ignore all the other good deeds that Brunetto did.
Finally, God is also portrayed as being hypocritical in His actions, a sin that further diminishes His godliness and makes Him more human. A case in point is when God condemns the sin of egotism and goes ahead to commit it repeatedly. Proverbs 29:23 states that “arrogance will bring your downfall, but if you are humble, you will be respected.” When Slattery condemns Dante’s human state as being weak, doubtful, and limited, he is proving God’s hypocrisy because He is also human (Verdicchio, 2015). The actions of God in Hell as portrayed by Dante are inconsistent with the Biblical literature. Both Dante and God are prone to making mistakes, something common among human beings thus making God more human.
To wrap it up, Dante portrays God is more human since He commits the same sins that humans commit: egotism, hypocrisy, and injustice. Hell is justified as being a destination for victims of the mistakes committed by God. The Hell is presented as being a totally different place as compared to what is written about it in the Bible. As a result, reading through the text gives an image of God who is prone to the very mistakes common to humans thus ripping Him off His lofty status of divine and, instead, making Him a mere human. Whether or not Dante did it intentionally is subject to debate but one thing is clear in the poem: the misconstrued notion of God is revealed to future generations.
Babor, T. F., McGovern, T., & Robaina, K. (2017). Dante’s inferno: Seven deadly sins in scientific publishing and how to avoid them. Addiction Science: A Guide for the Perplexed, 267.
Cheney, L. D. G. (2016). Illustrations for Dante’s Inferno: A Comparative Study of Sandro Botticelli, Giovanni Stradano, and Federico Zuccaro. Cultural and Religious Studies, 4(8), 487.
Verdicchio, M. (2015). Irony and Desire in Dante’s” Inferno” 27. Italica, 285-297.