In 2002, a study was conducted on 139 streams in 30 states to look for micro-contaminants in waters that are
used as sources of drinking water in the United States. In 80% of these streams, pharmaceutical active
substances were identified, along with components used in personal care products (cosmetics) (Koplin et al.,
2002). Further studies found that many of these chemical substance passed through municipal wastewater
treatment plants without being degraded or removed. The result is that these compounds are being discharged
into streams, and it is alleged that these compounds are responsible for exerting adverse effects on wildlife,
including the feminization of male fish and inducing sluggish activity levels in fish; three legged amphibians
have also been observed (Koplin et al., 2002).
With a focus on the residual pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE), it is clear that these are a direct result
of human excretion and direct disposal of medicines into the environment. In 2005, the State of Washington
averaged 8.5 prescriptions per capita with a total of 53 million being filled by retail outlets (Koplin et al., 2002).
This does not include institutional medicines prescribed in hospitals and nursing homes.
The PIE issue has nothing to do with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals as their waste is segregated with
specialized treatments for hazardous wastes and for non-hazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes will mostly go
to thermal oxidizers for destruction. Non-hazardous waste is regulated by pretreatment categorical standards
and by wastewater discharge permits, holding the manufacturing facility to strict performance standards.
Kolpin, D.W., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Thurman, E.M., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., & Buxton, H.T. (2002).
Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A
national reconnaissance. Environmental Science and Technology, 36(6), 1202-1211.
Using articles that you find in in your research, put the PIE issue into perspective. Do this by including relevant
discussion and analysis on the following areas:
Outline the political and societal concerns that are related to this issue.
The sources and impacts of these pharmaceutical residuals (chemical substances) being discharged into
Describe the recommendations and programs in the United States for disposing of unused medicines.
Compare these to how medicines are disposed in Europe.
Make a recommendation to EPA on how unused medicines should be disposed. Make your case for who
should pay for the disposal program: the patient, the manufacturer, or the government?
Regardless of which option you choose to write about, your final product should be a minimum of three pages
in length, not including your title page and reference page, and should be in APA style. You are required to use
a minimum two scholarly sources, which must be cited and referenced appropriately. Only one of your sources
may be your textbook (or other assigned reading source).
Could Watching Reality Shows Be Harmful? GuidesorSubmit my paper for examination circumstances and logical results article sampleIf an individual turns their TV on in practically any nation, in all probability the channels will be loaded up with various types of unscripted TV dramas. This is nothing unexpected, on the grounds that this sort of TV program has gotten incredibly well known in late decades. Such shows are engaging and compelling to watch, as they center not around anecdotal characters, however on genuine individuals put in various settings and circumstances. In any case, paying little heed to the diversion it conveys, an inquiry may emerge: is there something more to watching unscripted TV dramas than being engaged? While assessing unscripted TV dramas, a few variables ought to be taken in thought. The "truth" that is generally appeared on TV isn't a similar target reality we live in. Each unscripted TV drama has a center plan to which the conduct of its competitors is quelled—however the members are not obliged to act somehow, they despite everything follow the content, and their conduct is then assessed (by crowds, other show members, arbitrators, etc). "All TV appears, not simply unscripted TV dramas, help build situations that show how a few practices will be remunerated or rebuffed. The worry is that visit watchers of these shows will become familiar with these practices, consider them to be attractive and afterward model them in the genuine world," says Dr. Brad Gorham, seat of the Communications Department at the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University (USA Today). In the event that we attempt to make sense of what is so engaging about unscripted TV dramas, we can arrive at this resolution: it is the mortification and deriding of the competitors that makes individuals interested. In fact, on the off chance that we break down such a mainstream appear as American Idol, we will handily see numerous scenes of this program are devoted to ridiculing the hopefuls, whose performing capacities were lower contrasted with different members (which doesn't really mean they are denied of ability, or are more awful in some other way). This can make a group of people (which for the most part comprises of youngsters) that rate and evaluate individuals dependent on their characteristics, for example, appearance or aptitudes; this model structures a strong reason for segregating conduct and an absence of resilience (eHow). One more negative impact of unscripted TV dramas is a mutilated portrayal of connections between sexes. Numerous unscripted TV dramas address sexual topics, or portray connections dependent on embarrassments and battles. Connections on TV differentiate genuine ones: they will in general be less steady and amicable, they are sexualized, and for the most part planned for carrying greater prominence to those occupied with them. Since it is hard to control the entrance of underaged crowds to TV projects, youngsters and adolescents are presented to the dangers of building up an off-base view of connections dependent on what they see on TV, which is unsuitable (RFA.edu). Despite the fact that unscripted TV dramas have gotten incredibly well known, it doesn't mean they are gainful for their crowds. Or maybe regularly, these shows show good examples that depend on semi-fake conditions and situations. Be that as it may, these models are as yet observed as attractive by watchers. Likewise, mortification, which makes the premise of the diversion part in most of unscripted TV dramas, trains crowds to rate individuals dependent on their physical or mental characteristics, which can make a strong reason for separating conduct. Likewise, considering sexualized and disentangled delineations of sentimental connections as a general rule appears, one can guarantee these TV projects can cause distorted view of connections between various sexes in the psyches of young people, who for the most part make up the intended interest group of most of unscripted TV dramas. References Fahner, Micki. "The Real Effects of Reality TV." USA Today College. N.p., 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 08 Sept. 2014. "Negative Effects of Reality Shows." EHow. Request Media, 07 Oct. 2010. Web. 08 Sept. 2014. LeBoue, Sarah. "Unscripted television May Cause Deviant Sexual Behavior Among Teens." RFA.edu. N.p., 01 Sept. 2014. Web. 08 Sept. 2014. . school exposition, wellbeing article, web based life paper 3.4/5 NEED HELP? Approach a specialist for FREE>GET ANSWER