1)Pick TWO thinkers/philosophers or TWO written works mentioned in the Text (and consult at least one or two other sources for information about them).
2) Compare/contrast the background of the two people or works with each other.
3) Compare/contrast the main themes or ideas of each with the other
4) Compare the different philosophical arguments about reality, human nature, society, Government, etc, between the two
5) compare the relative impact on the arts and culture/society of the two (if applicable)
6) Compare/contrast which you think is more effective and why. Which do you like better and why.
Consider a wooden chair, in a sitting room. It is birch, with curved panelling and spindled legs. But say you leave the room for ten minutes and the chair cracks; is the chair the same when I return, or is it a new chair? The focus of this essay will be whether it is metaphysically possible for an object to persist through time whilst changing its intrinsic properties. Three – dimensionalism, or Endurantism/Adverbalism has often been referred to as the ‘common sense’ version of persistence through time. Conversely, four-dimensionalists claim that their version of persistence through time is greater connected to the physical world through the use of temporal parts as well as spatial parts (Stanford, 2015). Many contradictions arise in 3D-ism and 4-Dism when change over time is considered for an ordinary object and its identity, especially considering the intrinsic properties and configuration of the object. This essay will discuss the consideration of the identity of the object and its intrinsic properties with the overall consideration that there seems to be no contradiction between persistence over time and change over time. A fundamental question to answer in this essay is the nature of persistence through time. What is it for an object to maintain its identity through time? Is a chair the same chair now as it will be next year? For simplicity of discussion, this essay will focus on one single object for analysis, rather than a group of objects. The interpretation of ‘ordinary objects’ will be taken as objects that are extended in space (and time), not abstract objects such as mathematics (Lewis, 1986). Furthermore, this essay will discuss the actual world, not considering other possible worlds that may experience change in a different way. It is important in this essay to distinguish identity at a particular time to identity across time. To do this one must distinguish the different types of identity claims, diachronic and synchronic. Synchronic identity claims assert that an object ‘a’ that is assumed to exist at one time is identical to an object ‘b’ that is assumed to exist at that same time, i.e. Ian Mckellen can only be Ian Mckellan now. However, Diachronic Identity claims assert that an entity ‘a’ that is assumed to exist at one time is identical to an entity ‘b’ that is assumed to exist at a different time (Lowe, 2006). David Lewis states in his paper ‘The Plurality of Worlds’ that “something persists iff, somehow or other, it exists at various times.” (Lewis, 1986, p202) Furthermore, Lewis states that persistence is a matter of identity, claiming: “[a] platitude that cannot credibly be denied: what matters is identity between myself, existing now, and myself, still existing in the future.” (Lewis, 1986, p203) Therefore, to ‘persist’ will be interpreted as existing over time, and change will be a change of intrinsic properties over time. This essay will describe intrinsic properties as shape, mass and colour, amongst others. This essay will subsequently detail the potential conflicts of an object’s persistence through time, and its rebuttals in in the form of 3D-ism and 4D-ism in various forms. It is first necessary to understand the nature, or identity, of the object itself. There are commonly ascribed two kinds of identity; numerical and quantitative. Numerical Identity is defined as the relation that everything bears to itself and nothing else, i.e. A is numerically identical to B if they are actually the same object, not two objects A and B. Conversely, Qualitative Identity is defined as two objects being identical if they share all of their same intrinsic properties (Stanford, 2016). Intrinsic properties are defined as properties that are inherent to the identit>GET ANSWER