Promoting media use for modernization (Daniel Lerner) could have unexpected effects (e.g., the Algerian revolution). Explain with reference to Frantz Fanon’s discussion of the way the FLN, and Algerian supporters of the revolution, used the radio. Also discuss with Foucault’s argument about the Shah of Iran’s flawed or outdated modernization, and the importance of a) Islamic spirituality, and b) “small media” such as cassette tapes. Draw on Marshall McLuhan’s conception of ‘media’ as applying broadly to any and all aspects of the human body and the environment.
hatched had abnormalities such as spine curvature, two heads, etc. These data sets proved that the effects of BPA can last through generations, these where F2 generations being affected by the exposure F0 had. Mice are another model figure that has been widely studied, due to their reproductive and genetic similarity to humans. BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor (ED) which is a synthetic chemical that has resemblance toward natural hormones which affect development and fertility. Genes that are haploid undergo epigenetic resetting between generation and susceptible to environmental insults are called imprinted genes.3 The parental-specific methylation at different methylated regions are sustained in somatic cells throughout the lifespan of the individual, but reset specifically between generations in the germ line. In this experiment, epigenetic divergence caused by BPA exposure to imprinted genes was screened for. The effects of BPA on the preservation of imprinted gene expression were measured by a multiplex allele specific assay was generated. Mimicking or blocking endocrine actions are a few ways in which endocrine disruptors can affect methylation patterns and gene expression of DNA.13 It is hypothesized that the two parental chromosomes epigenetic reciprocal can be altered by hormone-like chemicals, gene expression and DNA methylation. 3,13 Measuring 39 imprinted transcripts for allele specific expression (using multiplex SNuPE) and characterization of the imprinted gene expression on mouse chromosome 7 were performed.13,3 Treated with BPA as well as a control oil were pregnant mice 8.5 to 12.5-days post conception (dpc). On the 13.5 dpc, yolk sac, placenta, head, body, heart, liver, lung, stomach, and intestines of the embryos that were treated were isolated to obtain RNA.3 When exposure to BPA specifically at different parts of development the correct expression of imprinted genes is disturbed as shown through the data. BPA at 0.02 mg exposed to fetus caused decrease sperm production (Fig. 6). Low exposure of BPA affects certain imprinted genes, while high exposure to BPA affects other imprinted genes in “non-substantial” ways.3 In high dose studies there are effects which are not seen physically but appear due to low dose encounters of BPA , the dosage amount depends on whether the response is hindered or not.13 This is important data to conclude from the experiment because in human serum the average levels of BPA are 0.5 to 10 ng/ml 13, which are higher than the levels in mice which cause harmful effects.3 For the first time it has been shown that environmental disturbances and man-made compounds have the potential to alter genetic reprogramming events in early embryonic development. The earliest sta>GET ANSWER