In an earlier version of the Devettere text, when describing Prudence and Formal Reasoning, the author wrote that “ Understanding prudence as a natural decision-making process requiring virtue and practical expertise does not do away with all formal reasoning in ethical decision making. Prudence is not a science or geometry, nor is it calculating the advantages and disadvantages of as many options as possible, but if often benefits from some formal reasoning. Usually this formal reasoning occurs after the decision maker has identified a tentative decision.”
In the current edition, on page 57 of Devettere, the author cites Kahneman describing Prudence and Reasoning, where he acknowledges that many points in his approach to decision-making agree with those of Gary Klein’s recognition-primed decision model whereby a person with expertise first quickly sees a possible good choice (System 1, in Kahneman’s language) and then mentally plays it out to see if it will work.
Devettere notes that the work of Kahneman and Klein bears an almost uncanny resemblance to the prudential decision making in virtue ethics of Aristotle and Aquinas. Develop an example from another field (ex. medicine, nursing, public health, etc.), describing the entwined processes of Prudence and Formal Reasoning.
This essay will discuss the changing role of women through the 18th Century until the current time and how this was affected by the initial feminist movement in the 18th Century. During the reign of Peter the Great from 1682 until 1725, major reforms happened in the lives of women ranging from the nobility to the lower classes. These changes were felt by the noblewomen first due to their proximity to the Tsar. The Petrine reforms changed women’s lives not only legally but also socially, as their participation in society became more prevalent. In the pre-Petrine era, the societal role of women, similar to that of their European counterparts, was focused on the home. Women suffered great inequality in comparison to men, as their only role in life was to marry and bear children. During the Petrine era, this role changed for women, while the women in Europe did not feel these changes until late in the Victorian Era. In his attempt to westernise his country, Peter the Great set about reforming the education system. For women this meant taking lessons at home in learning how to manage and keep a household. Education for noble men and women alike was not deemed important but was begrudgingly introduced by the upper class when literacy was made a requirement for advancement in state service. However, equality in education was not reached until the time of Catherine the Great, when the Smolny Institute for noblewomen and the Novodevichii Institute for lower class women were established in 1764 and 1765 respectively. The Smolny Institute was the first outlet for female education in Russia and took their role from its singular function as managers of a household, to literacy. Marriage reforms were a significant part of the Petrine era with younger marriages becoming more infrequent with the average marrying age being between 15 and 18 years old. However, prior to marriage, girls were required to live in separate quarters to men, usually in a “terem” in the case of noble families. “Terems” were separate living quarters within a household, accessed either by an outside passageway or a separate stairway. These were designed to keep women “pure”, inexperienced and more desirable for marriage. For the women of lower classes, a “terem” was virtually impossible to have as lower class houses had very little space and more often than not, women could not be separated from the men also living in the house. The lives of these women was different to that of their noble counterparts, with them engaging daily in intensive labour usually reserved for men. Along with their domestic duties, they were also required to help on the land when harvest time came around. Due to their poor status, peasant families could not afford to hire farm hands, as a result these duties fell to the women. In the pre-Petrine era, the amount of sons a woman had improved her status to her husband as this ensured the longevity of their property and also their family name. However, during the reign of Peter the Great, one of the most important reforms made was the introduction of the Law of Single Inheritance in 1714. The law established that any immovable property would be passed down to one son or in the absence of a son, to one daughter. Any movable property would then be divided between the remaining children of both sexes. In the absence of a will, the immovable property would be left to the eldest son. In the case of any of the daughters being married, they were not entitled to any inheritance due to their dowry. The introduction of this law almost guaranteed the right of a daughter to be a legitimate heir to patrimonial property. Another aspect of the law was the right given to unmarried women in choosing where they should live. In the event that an unmarried daughter did not wish to live with the heir of the immovable property, she was within her right to take her portion of the movable property and live elsewhere, as long as this desire was expressed in the presence of witnesses. In the same respect, if she wished to remain in the property, she could do so until marriage or in the event that she not marry, she could also remain living with the heir. However, this law was repealed in 1731 by Peter the Greats successor, Anna Ivanovna. The law returned to the principle of giving each child an equal share of the inheritance. Inspired by the 18th Century equality movements in Europe, Russian f>GET ANSWER