Based on the book – Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Discuss the following 2 questions SEPARETLY: 1. What is personality? 2. Articulate the strengths and weaknesses of both quantitative psychometric assessments and collaborative, qualitative assessments.
From the residence expansion based evaluation description on the Niger Delta Environment, it was acknowledged that water and oil which are the two rich normal resources in the region are the springs and grounds of miserable deficiency. The equivalent can be said about vigor possessions such as gas, coal etc. in Nigeria, which is in huge large quantity, yet there is energy dearth in the country. Climate Change Climate change is like the Sword of Damocles hanging over humanity. It is simply the process by which human emissions of Greenhouse Gases are believed to be causing changes in the Earth's climate system. The emission of Green House Gases (mostly from anthropogenic activities) into the atmosphere, turn out to deplete the ozone layer that absorbs/shields the atmosphere of intensive sun radiation and in turn makes the planet earth unduly warm with resultant variations in climate conditions. This phenomenon is known as climate change. It brings about global warming that is responsible for increases in extreme weather conditions, rise in sea level, storms, floods, decrease in rainfalls, droughts, impairment of the ecosystems and its biodiversities which human life depends on, rapidly melting glaciers, destabilization of major ice sheets, desertification, decrease in agricultural produce etc. Government effort Government effort in the area of developing energy sector to the improvement of the poor status quo is on-going as seen in the current legislative process on national energy bill for an act that will lead to the establishment of a national agency that will take charge of regulating, enforcing policies and developing the energy sector in Nigeria. Just as we now have the National Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA), so we hope to have the national energy regulatory agency when the bill is enacted into law. Yet, if we must achieve energy efficiency, gas flaring must not exist and in the face of government's discouraging effort in that direction, much is expected to be done, particularly by the civil society. Although the issuance of deadline for flares-out, January 2008 is reasonable, whereas its commitment to realizing it is absolutely discouraging due to lack of compliance on cash calls to the tune of $4billion (N508 billion) yearly for joint venture projects (JVP). This is due to the fact that the Federal Government through NNPC owns the largest stake in the JVP. The oil/gas sector have since been working on various gas utilization projects, by way of using gas for power generation to, at least, improve epileptic nature of power supply in the country, while some are working on exporting the gas. On Gas-to-Power Project The International Finance Institutions (IFIs) and the World Bank are currently assisting the Agip's Kwale Partners' Flaring-Reduction to use the natural gas to generate electricity. The project is further supported by Global Gas Flaring Reduction (GGFR) - a Public Private Partnership (PPP) project and is to be registered as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project under the Kyoto Protocol. The Kwale Partners' Flaring Reduction Project which is 40% stake to Nigerian AGIP and 60% to NNPC, will be the first to put associated natural gas into generating electricity in Nigeria and will eliminate 1.5 million tons of CO2 - thus becoming the 10th largest in the 2,160 projects in CDP pipeline of Kyoto Protocol. There are also plans to build a $10billion (N1.27 trillion) gas pipeline network across the Sahara Desert through Niger, Algeria, across the Mediterranean for export of gas from Nigeria to Europe by Shell. In addition to that, the West Africa Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project spearheaded by Chevron is to also export gas from Nigeria to Benin, Togo and Ghana, with capacity of 75 billion cubit feet a year and would cost $590 million (N74.6 billion). SPDC, NNPC are equally partners in the project. And for Ghana Pipeline stretch, the World Bank has already provided guarantee for $50 million (N6.3 billion) while $75million (N9.5billion) political risk guarantee has also been provided for West African Gas Pipeline Company (WAGPCO) - that will operate the project. Chevron has 36.7 % stake in WAGPCO, Shell, Tokoradi Power Company Limited of Ghana, Togolaise de Gaz and Societe Beninoise de Gaz are other shareholders in the company. Impacts and Statistics Meanwhile, United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOOA) in its studies revealed that Nigeria flares 75% of its Natural gas for lack of processing facilities and that amounted to 20% of flared gas Worldwide. Secondly, according to Earth Trend Country Profile 2003, its report on Nigeria shows that Nigeria flares 2.5billion cubic feet per day of associated gas and that represents 40% of all natural gas consumed in the continent of Africa and further represents the single largest sources of GHG emissions on planet earth. On that note the Nigerian Government is doubling its effort in seeking support on how to tackle the issue of flares-out. Presently, the Government is seeking assistance from Norway, while World Bank is presently mediating between it and the Multinational oil/gas companies for a compromise on the ultimatum to end gas flaring January 2008. SUSTAINABLE HOUSING IN NIGERIA: One may perchance be excited to put why accent is being positioned on the housing. Firstly of all man's basic needs, housing questionably, constitutes and incontrovertibly poses the supreme challenge. Secondly, dynamic and lighthearted accommodation sectors are a proposition of a physically powerful curriculum of countrywide investment and are to be sure the groundwork of and the first step to future monetary growth and social development. The unpleasant housing delivery is consequently a most important factor in the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) and indeed this reflects the mirror and the gauge of the state of health of the Nation. Financially viable activities are well recognized to include all aspects of human enterprise that are heading for towards the conception of wealth. It is also known that one of the foundations of person needs is to try to find to augment our self worth by civilizing our living standards. Economic growth is therefore a natural hunt in any individual set-up as such enhancements is predictable to lead to amplified wealth and affluence both for individuals and the complete nation. In regulate to restrain the heightened deficiency of sanctuary in the country, the NHP for the period spanning 1994 to 1998 was probable to build 121,000 housing units. In addition, the amount of Licensed Primary Mortgage Finance Institutions (LPMFI) rose from 251 in 1993 to 276 in 1994. However, by the end of 1998, it has declined to 115. Similarly, the Federal Government resources disbursement on somewhere to live increase by over 500 per cent to N4818.3 million in 1995 from N776.7 million in 1988, but deteriorates slightly by about to per cent to N722.0 million in 1998 (CBN 1994 and 1998). The Federal and the State Government were probable to spend N2.7 billion on housing provision during the 1996-8 NRP. Over N3.0 billion was expected to be spending by the two levels of governments during the 1999-2001 NRP (NPC, 1998 and 2000). Regardless of all these interferences and inventions and huge investments in housing requirements since the colonial times and to date, Nigeria's housing problems still remain intractable. In fact, access to decent shelter has wretched for increasing segments of the urban population in Nigeria. For instance, it was reported that out of 121,000 housing units be down for to be built between 1994 and 1995, only 1,014 houses were completed (CBN, 1994 and 1998; and Vision 2010 Main Report). Also, it was estimated that about 85 per cent of urban population live in single rooms, and the number of tenants per room range from 8 to 12 with adverse effects on sanitation and health. The deteriorating housing situation in Nigeria, especially at the urban centers is too critical to leave for government to level out alone. Nigeria is the 6th biggest creator of unfinished oil in the privileged confederation known as OPEC, whose members account for over two -third of the world's total supply of this product. Also the country's anticipated reserves of natural gas runs into billions of metric tones and the first train of the liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) has recently being shipped out with the construction all fully committed to purchase's from abroad. In terms of revenue earning capability and latent, it is worth mentioning that Nigeria to date has realized over S200 billion from crude oil sales. For a country that could blow your own horn of such huge amount of possessions, it is very saddening and disturbing to note that very little of the pay packet have been put into use to boost the fortune of the Housing Industry and infrastructure. The industry should have seen a lot more commotion and government support, in large scale development schemes, and improvement and providing of infrastructure; provision of large scale community housing, creating and getting higher new towns. A superficial look at the present state of the housing condition tells an obtrusive tale of a huge paradox - An absurdity of achieving so little with so many donations! A measure of inadequacy of the government that should to provide the lead. And so today the somewhere to live stipulation is in a state of down for the count, neither dying nor living!!! STATUS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN NIGERIA: Wind Energy Potentials Internationally, Nigeria is positioned within short to moderate wind liveliness zone. Ojosu and Salawu (1989) carried out the most inclusive on a national scale study on current of air get-up-and-go accessibility and latent in Nigeria. The revise uses facts on Wind speeds and guidelines for 22 meteorological Stations from the Nigerian Meteorological office, Oshodi near Lagos. The meteorological data are based on the 3-hourly records of wind for periods ranging from 12 to 33 years (1951 - 1983) The insolvents at 10m heights are drawn and four different wind zones/regimes are identified .The wind energy probable for wind energy consumption in Nigeria is broadly considered (Ojosu and Salawu, 1990). Solar Energy Resources in Nigeria According to Bala et al (2000), Nigeria is gifted with a twelve-monthly normal daily brightness of 6.25 hours, ranging between about 3.5 hours at the coastal areas and 9.0 hours at the far northern boundary (Figure 8). Correspondingly, it has an annual average daily solar emission of about 5.25 KW/m2/day, varying between about 3.5 kWm2/day at the coastal Area and 7.0kW/m2/day at the northern boundary (8). Nigeria accepts on the subject of 4.851x 1012 KWh of energy per day from the sun. This is the same to about 1.082 million tones of oil Equivalent (mtoe) per day, and is about 4 thousand times the current daily crude oil diminution, and about 13 thousand times that of natural gas daily construction based on energy unit. This huge energy resource from the sun is available for about 26% only of the day. The country is also characterized with some cold and dusty impression during the harmattan, in its northern part, for a period of about four months (November-February) annually (13). The dust has an attenuating effect on the solar radiation intensity (Bala, et al, 2001). Biogas Energy Resources Akinbami et al (2001)'s consideration indicated that in Nigeria, notorious feedstock substrate for an economically reasonable biogas program embraces water lettuee, water hyacinth, dung, cassava leave, urban refuse, solid (including industrial) waste, agricultural residues and sewage. Various farming and domestic animals resources and their coupled residues have the prospective substrates for biogas production in the country. Akinbami et al (2001)'s views include the following; Nigeria produces about 227,500 tons of fresh animal wastes daily. Since 1 kilogram (kg) of fresh animal wastes produces about 0.03 m3 gas, then Nigeria can produce about 6.8 million m3 of biogas every day. In addition to all these, 20kg of municipal solid wastes (MSW) per capital has been estimated to be generated within the country annually. By the 1991 census figure of 88.5 million inhabitants, the full amount generated MSW will be at least 1.77 million tones every year. With escalating urbanization and industrialization, the annual MSW generated will maintain to increase. Biogas construction may therefore be a money-spinning means of falling or even >GET ANSWER