Introduction: Introduce the issue and state why it is important to discuss. Who is affected and to what degree?
Define the Problem: Describe the public policy issues: State the proposed law, policy, issue, problem, concern.
What is the issue? What is the issue’s history? How has it changed over time and who is currently affected?
How is it perceived by those involved: legislators, clients, planners, program administrators, line staff, parents,
caregivers, etc.. Examine a range of viewpoints on the issue.
You should be able to clearly state the problem in 1-2 sentences and the proposed Public Policy change in 1- 2 sentences. Be able to point to those sentences. If someone only read that, they would understand what you are proposing.
Assemble Some Evidence: What evidence will you use to convince a policy maker that this is a problem and
that your solution will work? Identify 2-3 public policies which could address your issue. What evidence is there
to support or reject each alternative? Explain why those options have been proposed to address the identified
issue. Using actual evidence is best here, but you can also list what evidence you would use if none is
Construct the Alternatives: Compare the relative merits of competing public policies that have been identified to
address the issue (the 2-3alternatives that you came up with above). What other potential policies have been
proposed to address the issue?
Select the Criteria and Project the Outcomes: What outcomes will be produced by your proposed policy? How
will you measure the desired outcomes to determine the success? How will we know if your Policy worked?
When has it worked enough?
Confront the Tradeoffs: What compromises will need to be made in order to choose the direction of the policy
that will address the issue?
“If humanity depends on social recognition, individuals may be dehumanized.” Noonan’s conclusion is based on predicting the future. Since the future is not always evident, Noonan’s argument proves to be inductive since his conclusion is not completely true and can be proven false. Marquis’s argument on the other hand is a deductive argument. Why I believe this is because many of his premises are proven true, and his conclusion backs up his premises making his conclusion true. It is a direct statement that Marquis believes to be true, therefore making his argument a deductive one. When it comes to which argument has the more successful argument, it would be Don Marquis because his argument showcases many relevant premises that back up his conclusion making his argument valid. In his argument he includes a variety of premises from factual claims, value laden claims, and even a rebuttal to one of his premises in which he comes up with a counter argument, expressing his claim to be true. One of his premises that proved to be valid, considering his conclusion was his second premise.. This premise proves to be factual because he does express that murder is wrong and that eliminating any living being is considered murder. His conclusion is strong based on the fact that many of his premises are strong and accurately entail to his argument. Compared to John T. Noonan’s argument, Some of Noonan’s premises were partially invalid due to the fact that some of his premises could not be proven to be true such as his 3rd premise where he states that the sentimental aspect of a foetus in that a parent will grieve harder for an older child vs. a newborn child. There is no scale as to which you can measure someone’s grief. We can also see that Don Marquis’s premises are mostly counter arguments to some of John Noonan’s premises. Some examples of these is Don marquis’s 1st premise “Life is present from the moment of conception or that foetuses look like babies or that foetuses possess a characteristic such as a genetic code.” Vs John Noonan’s 2nd premise “A being who has had experience, has lived and suffered, who possesses memories, is more human than one who has not.” Don Marquis seems to provide a counterargument to John Noonan’s premises on the distinction that some abortionists believe that if a being has experience and has suffered etc. then it is more human. Marquis states that Life is present from conception where Noonan’s premise states that its present from the moment it experiences things outside of the womb. Marquis again proves to be successful with this argument because it has been proven that as soon as conception happens, a foetus experiences many things. In the womb, the foetus can hear us, just as humans can hear sound. A foetus can also experience movement. Noonan’s premises again proves to be invalid due to the fact that as soon as conception happens, they experience life and as they come to be in the womb, they experience the same things as human can experience such as hearing and feeling. Although Marquis does provide many valid and strong concepts, he also provides one concept that isn’t so valid and can have many rebuttals. Marquis’s last premise is based on contraception which expresses how it prevents the miracle of conception and that it is “wrong only if something were denied a human future of value by contraceptio>GET ANSWER