Qualitative research of hypertension among elderly women

These are the general instructions for the qualitative essay. Use the two resources only to write the essay!!

Use the practice problem and a qualitative, peer-reviewed research article you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment.
In a 1000-1,250 word essay, summarize the study, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.
Refer to the resource “Research Critique Guidelines” for suggested headings and content for your paper.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

This is the rubric you must follow when writing the essay.
Rubric:
Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
Conclusion summarizes utility of the research from the critical appraisal, knowledge learned, and the importance of the findings to nursing practice.
Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Argument is clear and convincing and presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

You are basing this essay on these two resources only!!
1) Murphy, K., Chuma, T., Mathews, C., Steyn, K., & Levitt, N. (2015). A qualitative study of the experiences of care and motivation for effective self-management among diabetic and hypertensive patients attending public sector primary health care services in South Africa. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 30-36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0969

Abstract
Background
Diabetes and hypertension constitute a significant and growing burden of disease in South Africa. Presently, few patients are achieving adequate levels of control. In an effort to improve outcomes, the Department of Health is proposing a shift to a patient-centered model of chronic care, which empowers patients to play an active role in self-management by enhancing their knowledge, motivation and skills. The aim of this study was to explore patients’ current experiences of chronic care, as well as their motivation and capacity for self-management and lifestyle change.
Methods
The study involved 22 individuals, qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of hypertensive and diabetic patients attending three public sector community health centers in Cape Town. Participants were a mix of Xhosa and Afrikaans speaking patients and were of low socio-economic status.
Results
The concepts of relatedness, competency and autonomy from Self Determination Theory proved valuable in exploring patients’ perspectives on what a patient-centered model of care may mean and what they needed from their healthcare providers. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that patients experience multiple impediments to effective self-management and behavior change, including poor health literacy, a lack of self-efficacy and perceived social support. With some exceptions, the majority of patients reported not having received adequate information; counseling or autonomy support from their healthcare providers. Their experiences suggest that the current approach to chronic care largely fails to meet patients’ motivation needs, leaving many of them feeling anxious about their state of health and frustrated with the quality of their care.
Conclusions
In accordance with other similar studies, most of the hypertensive and diabetic patients interviewed for this study were found to be ill equipped to play an active and empowered role in self-care. It was clear that patients desire greater assistance and support from their healthcare providers. In order to enable healthcare providers in South Africa to adopt a more patient-centered approach and to better assist and motivate patients to become effective partners in their care, training, resources and tools are needed. In addition, providers need to be supported by policy and organizational change.

2) Emily, P.J., Raj, S.P., Alexander, M.C., & Branko, B. (2013). A Qualitative Study of Patient Perspectives about Hypertension. ISRN Hypertension, 13(1), 1-10. https://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2013/671691
Abstract
To understand hypertensive patients’ perspectives regarding blood pressure and hypertension treatment, this qualitative study applied semi structured interviews of hypertensive patients. Participants were recruited from two hypertension clinics at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. To be eligible for inclusion, patients had to be aged 18 years or older, diagnosed with hypertension by a healthcare provider, and currently taking an antihypertensive medication. Participants were stratified in the analysis according to blood pressure control. Twenty-six patients (mean age 57; 62% female) were interviewed, of which 42% were on target and 58% were not. Three underlying themes emerged from the interviews: (a) knowledge of blood pressure relating to diagnosis and management and control of hypertension, (b) integration of hypertension management into daily routine, and (c) feelings and beliefs of wellness. None of the above themes were associated with better control. Knowledge gaps were found, which emphasize the need for further patient education and physician training. Feelings and beliefs of wellness, and not knowledge, were important factors in home assessment of blood pressure. The absence of connections between control of hypertension and the identified domains indicates that current approaches could benefit from the development of a more personalized approach for education and communication.

Problem of Interest
Medical records across the world indicate that hypertension is one of the severe conditions, which have led to many deaths. The worry is that the management of the condition is still a challenge across the world. Poor management of hypertension is an indication that awareness and information has not adequately been disseminated among the public. The recommendation is that there is a need for the medical fraternity to introduce effective control measures and support individual awareness on the management of hypertension. There are significant lifestyle risk factors, which need to be addressed among the public. The entire process requires regular screening among the public and continued communication on regulating blood pressure. Medics have argued that preventing and controlling hypertension is possible but increased commitment and engagement of the general public is necessary.
PICOT Question
For female adults aged between 55 and 75 years suffering hypertension (P), will a change in eating and exercising behaviors (I), compared to the use of medications among the same age patients to treat the condition (C), help manage hypertension and risks involved (cardiovascular diseases) (O), in the effective treatment within 6 months.

Here is an essay you are basing this paper off of. If you can summarize and touch on points from this paper you will be fine. I hand this paper in a plagiarism checker so it also has to be original.

In “A qualitative study of the experiences of care and motivation for effective self-management among diabetic and hypertensive patients attending public sector primary health care services in South Africa” Murphy, Chuma, Mathews, Steyn, & Levitt (2015) evaluate the behavior of hypertensive patients. In the study, conducted in South Africa, a qualitative approach was chosen to complete data collection and analysis. The researchers aimed at understanding why hypertensive patients opted to adhere to recommended treatments or not. As stated by Stuart (2012) among the recommendations given to manage hypertension include consuming antihypertensive medication, engaging in the increased physical activity, and managing their diet.
Background of Study
Hypertension is one of the severe conditions, which has led to many deaths. It is also a condition that has not been adequately addressed in the research field. Findings indicate that the condition is associated mainly with other medical illnesses thus lacking adequate focus in the analysis. The worry is that the management of the disease is still a challenge across the world. Poor management of hypertension is an indication that awareness and information have not adequately been disseminated among the public. Research has indicated that it is possible to have thousands of people suffering hypertension but not diagnosed. This is because it is a condition that is not adequately highlighted through signs and symptoms. However, management and control of hypertension are effective in managing life risk factors. The management of individual lifestyles is indicated as one of the effective strategies. The individual behaviors including eating and exercising are critical in managing the condition.
In the study by Murphy, Chuma, Mathews, Steyn, & Levitt (2015), the objective was to evaluate patient experiences with hypertension. It was highlighted that there are some experiences in primary health care facilities that cause them not to adhere to some treatment plans. Among the investigated patients in South Africa, 82% of them highlighted that oral antihypertensive medications are the basics of managing hypertension. The researcher aimed at conducting a study in further exploring patient behavior in managing hypertensive conditions.
Method of Study
In-depth interviews were used in this study. Interviews are formal or informal conversations with research respondents in relations to an identified research issue. The use of interviews has been engaged in numerous studies especially to collect qualitative data. This is because qualitative interviews engage a high level of flexibility that s critical in diversifying the collected information. The researchers engaged 22 individuals from across health centers in Cape Town in the data collection through qualitative interviews. A mix of Xhosa and Afrikaans were engaged in this study. From my perspective, the qualitative interviews are an efficient tool for collecting data for this study. Analysis of the data was conducted using thematic analysis. To gather adequate data for supporting their findings, the authors also collected data from journals and books. The objective was to increase the validity and reliability of the collected information for analyzing the research question. However, the major limitation of the study was the use of articles that were over 5 years old. This meant that some information was outdated. However, the integration of all these sources was critical in exploring the research issue.
Results of Study
The results of the survey indicate that community support for empowering patients with hypertension across the South African society is inadequate. The studies found out that majority of patients do not adequately adhere to the plans used in the management of hypertension conditions. The findings indicated that patients did not actively participate in changing diets and increasing physical activities to manage their conditions. However, it was also found out that patients were motivated to engage in such plans when consulted by the healthcare providers. The follow-up monitoring and counseling were also easier and effective when both parties were actively involved. The findings of the study also indicated that there was a fear of side effects from hypertension medication. This was indicated as to a major reason why patients failed to adhere to routine intake. The major implications of these findings are that collective efforts will be established in the medical field to manage hypertension among the patients. The findings will significantly impact the education, and practice of both patients and medical professionals in the overall management of hypertension.
Ethical Considerations
In facilitating this study, the researchers sort permission from the relevant authorities. They obtained ethical approval from the South African Ministry of Health. In order to increase the reliability of the data collected, the researchers engaged anonymity and confidentiality in the selection of respondents. The researcher ensured that no information collected from any of the respondents was revealed to third parties. In this case, the respondents remained anonymous. Conducting the research interviews in secluded locations was also a critical practice in ensuring that the privacy and confidentiality of the respondents were adhered to. The researchers also engaged citation as one of the ways of recognizing the source of any information that was used in the research. This was practiced as a way of adhering to intellectual property law. It is through the ethical approaches that the researcher was able to increase reliability and validity of the collected data that was used in the analysis of the research issue.
Conclusion
It can be concluded from this study that there is a need for increased involvement of patients in the development of plans to manage hypertension. The study also reveals that medical professionals should also commit to proactively supporting the patients throughout the recovery process. Murphy, Chuma, Mathews, Steyn, & Levitt (2015) concluded that dialogue between the professionals and the patients is among the most effective approaches in developing treatment plans. Finally, the study highlights that self-management approaches in the management of hypertension are a major recommendation that needs to be integrated into the treatment plans. It is also clear that strategies need to be put in place within the healthcare centers to integrate the motivation of patients in adhering to the consumption of antihypertensive medication, engaging in the increased physical activity, and managing their diet.

References
Murphy, K., Chuma, T., Mathews, C., Steyn, K., & Levitt, N. (2015). A qualitative study of the experiences of care and motivation for effective self-management among diabetic and hypertensive patients attending public sector primary health care services in South Africa. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1), 30-36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-015-0969
Stuart, G. (2012). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. United States: Mosby Publishers.

Here are the research guidelines.
Research Critique Guidelines
To write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of the research study conducted, address each component below for qualitative study in the Topic 2 assignment and the quantitative study in the Topic 3 assignment.
Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide a rationale, include examples, or reference content from the study in your responses.
Qualitative Study
Background of Study:
• Identify the clinical problem and research problem that led to the study. What was not known about the clinical problem that, if understood, could be used to improve health care delivery or patient outcomes? This gap in knowledge is the research problem.
• How did the author establish the significance of the study? In other words, why should the reader care about this study? Look for statements about human suffering, costs of treatment, or the number of people affected by the clinical problem.
• Identify the purpose of the study. An author may clearly state the purpose of the study or may describe the purpose as the study goals, objectives, or aims.
• List research questions that the study was designed to answer. If the author does not explicitly provide the questions, attempt to infer the questions from the answers.
• Were the purpose and research questions related to the problem?
Method of Study:
• Were qualitative methods appropriate to answer the research questions?
• Did the author identify a specific perspective from which the study was developed? If so, what was it?
• Did the author cite quantitative and qualitative studies relevant to the focus of the study? What other types of literature did the author include?
• Are the references current? For qualitative studies, the author may have included studies older than the 5-year limit typically used for quantitative studies. Findings of older qualitative studies may be relevant to a qualitative study.
• Did the author evaluate or indicate the weaknesses of the available studies?
• Did the literature review include adequate information to build a logical argument?
• When a researcher uses the grounded theory method of qualitative inquiry, the researcher may develop a framework or diagram as part of the findings of the study. Was a framework developed from the study findings?

Results of Study
• What were the study findings?
• What are the implications to nursing?
• Explain how the findings contribute to nursing knowledge/science. Would this impact practice, education, administration, or all areas of nursing?
Ethical Considerations
• Was the study approved by an Institutional Review Board?
• Was patient privacy protected?
• Were there ethical considerations regarding the treatment or lack of?
Conclusion
• Emphasize the importance and congruity of the thesis statement.
• Provide a logical wrap-up to bring the appraisal to completion and to leave a lasting impression and take-away points useful in nursing practice.
• Incorporate a critical appraisal and a brief analysis of the utility and applicability of the findings to nursing practice.
• Integrate a summary of the knowledge learned.

Sample Solution

ACED ESSAYS